Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Cross Language Translation in a Web-based Environment Essay

One of the major problems with cross-language translations involving those that are rarely used together (i. e. Finish Lithuanian) is that there are no dictionaries available or it is extremely difficult to find one. The main problem is that there are not enough people to create a market and no one would invest in creation of such kind of dictionaries. English-based dictionaries, however, is of abundance. This project tackled the above cited problem in Cross Language Translation using English as its base dictionary. Artificial intelligence through Neural Networks was used as it appeared well-suited to problems of this nature. For this reason, artificial intelligence through neural networks was investigated as a potential tool to improve translation accuracy but future implementation was left as a possibility. WordNet ® was also investigated as source of defining English words and possible tool to achieve greater accuracy in cross-language translations. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank all those who have contributed in any way, shape or form to the completion of this project report, those at Zodynai. org and the Anglia Ruskin University for their advice and support. Thanks to my friends and family who (once again) tolerated my lack of time and sometimes grumpy demeanour. More thanks to friends at Anglia Ruskin University for their ideas and criticism. Your support (directly and indirectly) is greatly appreciated. T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ABSTRACT Acknowledgements TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES METHODOLOGIES DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND EVALUATION BIBILIOGRAPHY APPENDICES A Project Specification B User/Software Installation Guide A C Software Installation Guide B D Poster and Visual Presentations E Source Code F Abbreviations and Acronyms INTRODUCTION The multilingual world and the barriers it entails. A large number of people across the world converse in English thus it serves as the primary lingua franca for developments in the research world. Most publications and journals are published in such language. This leaves publications in other languages inaccessible and apparently, information in English is withheld from those millions who do not speak English (Diekema 2003) Recent trends promote the construction of a far-reaching complex infrastructure for transporting information across boundaries. Apparently, language shares a vital portion in the hindrances presented by National borders. Whilst the fact is inevitable that English remains the most spoken language in the whole world and though, it is true that the spread of ‘World English’ can promote cooperation and equity, longstanding linguistic competition threatens to be even more divisive in a globalizing world. (Maurais et al n. d. ) A lot is currently going on to overcome these linguistic barriers. The most efficient approach to overcoming such is with cross-language translation and in this literature it will well be mostly in the web-based-online-dictionary aspect of such approach. English has always been the main focus of information retrieval, well, that is by tradition. Many of them retrieval algorithms and heuristics stem from English speaking countries and thus are based on the said language. Over the years, these retrieval methods have been adopted by other language communities, creating a wide selection of language-specific monolingual retrieval systems. However, to ensure complete information exchange, information retrieval systems need to be multilingual or cross-lingual. (Diekema 2003) There are a lot of ways to pin down the hindrance of being in this multi-lingual world, the barrier of being in a world divided by being in English- or Non-English-speaking territories. And, as presented, the most researched approach is through Cross-Language translation. OBJECTIVES Main problem that we are facing when translating with English based dictionary is connecting various language data bases. One of solutions for this program is to create a base dictionary (as seen in Figure 1). Figure 1 Other major problem is that performing translation a lot of noise is created. As seen in Figure 2. Figure 2 We can examine this in greater detail in Figure 3. Word Autobusas is translated from Lithuanian language to Russian based on English language. Two different possible translations occur (bus, omnibus) when translating Lithuanian -> English. First word â€Å"bus† translated from English to Russian has three meanings â€Å"Ð °Ã ²Ã'‚Ð ¾Ã ±Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã¢â‚¬  †Ã ¾Ã ¼Ã ½Ã ¸Ã ±Ã'Æ'Ã' Ã¢â‚¬  †Ã'ˆÐ ¸Ã ½Ã °Ã¢â‚¬  word translated. As first few are synonyms third one has totally different value and meant â€Å"Topology bus†. As you can see on reverse translations †Ã'ˆÐ ¸Ã ½Ã °Ã¢â‚¬  will going to give you four different meanings translated in Lithuanian language. Figure 3 We are going to investigate WordNet and Neural networks approach for possible solution of this problem. METHODOLOGIES Cross-Language Information Retrieval, its promise. Information retrieval entails an individual querying about something of interest to him. Inevitably, since we are life forms known to be ever inquisitive, we do Information Retrieval in every aspect of our living. This event so commonly happens in a lot of situation and may be best displayed in a Library when a student picks his book of choice. Formally, let us define Information Retrieval (IR) as the process in which users with information need query a collection of documents to find those documents that satisfy his need. (Diekema 2003) In the electronic realm, the user queries by typing in related words, the system then processes these keywords to create a representation understandable by the system. In the course of the procedure, the system usually strips off non-bearing fragments of the query keywords such as articles like determiners, prepositions, and pronouns. The document collection undergoes the same process resulting to a list of document representations or a catalogue. To find documents that are similar to the query, the ‘stripped off’ query representation is then matched against the catalogue. When a certain degree of similarity between the catalogue and the ‘stripped off’ query has been established, the documents with the uppermost similarity scores (depending on the settings, say top 10) are shown to the user as results. This occurs typically during browsing through the internet and Google. comTM best displays this example. A development of IR is CLIR – the Cross-Language Information Retrieval, which, as the name implies, is information retrieval in a multi-linguistic environment. Consequently, CLIR techniques simplify searching by multilingual users and allow monolingual searchers to judge relevance based on machine translated results and/or to allocate expensive translation resources to the most promising foreign language documents. (Diekema 2003) Simple IR systems only consist of a Query, an Input Cleanser, a Matcher, the Document database and the Output, in logical order. The addition of Language Translators would make this system a Cross-Language Information Retrieval system. Of course the Document database would now contain multi-lingual entries as well and the output is to be presented in the way the query has been placed in the input. Figure 4 would show the Cross-Language Information Retrieval system in schematics. The method Cross-language Retrieval Systems promises users to state their queries in their native language and retrieve documents in all the languages supported by the system. (Diekema 2003) Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Artificial intelligence (AI) results to simulation of intellectual practice such as comprehension, rationalization and learning symbolic information in context. In AI, the automation or programming of all aspects of human cognition is considered from its foundations in cognitive science through approaches to symbolic and sub-symbolic AI, natural language processing, computer vision, and evolutionary or adaptive systems. (Neumann n. d. ) AI considered being an extremely intricate domain of problems which during preliminary stages in the problem-solving phase of this nature, the problem itself may be viewed poorly. A precise picture of the problem can only be seen upon interactive and incremental refinement of course, after you have taken the initial attempt to solve the mystery. AI always comes hand in hand with machine logistics. How else could mind act appropriately but with the body. In this case, a machine takes the part of the body. In a bit, this literature will be tackling about AI implemented through Neural Network. The author deems it necessary though to tackle Machine learning and thus the succeeding paragraphs. Machine Learning is primarily concerned with designing and developing algorithms and procedures that allow machines to â€Å"learn† – either inductive or deductive, which, in general, is its two types. At this point, we will be referring to machines as computers since in the world nowadays, the latter are the most widely used for control. Hence, we now hone our definition of Machine Learning as the study of methods for programming computers to learn. Computers are applied to a wide range of tasks, and for most of these it is relatively easy for programmers to design and implement the necessary software. (Dietterich n. d. ) Machine learning techniques are grouped into different categories basing on the expected outcome. Common types include Supervised, Unsupervised, Semi-supervised or Reinforcement learning. There is also the Transduction method and the ‘Learning to learn’ scheme. A section of theoretical computer science, Computational Learning Theory is the investigation on the computation of algorithms of Machine Learning including its efficiency. Researches on Machine Learning focuses mainly on the automatic extraction of information data, through computational and statistical methods. It is very much correlated not only to theoretical computer science as well as data mining and statistics. Supervised learning is the simplest learning task. It is an algorithm to which it is ruled by a function that automatically plots inputs to expected outputs. The task of supervised learning is to construct a classifier given a set of classified training examples (Dietterich n. d. ). The main challenge for supervised learning is that of generalization that a machine is expected in approximating the conduct that a function will exhibit which maps out a connection towards a number of classes through comparison of IO samples of the said function. When many plot-vector pairs are interrelated, a decision tree is derived which aids into viewing how the machine behaves with the function it currently holds. One advantage of decision trees is that, if they are not too large, they can be interpreted by humans. This can be useful both for gaining insight into the data and also for validating the reasonableness of the learned tree (Dietterich n. d. ). In unsupervised learning, manual matching of inputs is not utilized. Though, it is most often distinguished as supervised learning and it is one with an unknown output. This makes it very hard to decide what counts as success and suggests that the central problem is to find a suitable objective function that can replace the goal of agreeing with the teacher (Hinton & Sejnowski 1999). Simple classic examples of unsupervised learning include clustering and dimensionality reduction. (Ghahramani 2004) Semi-supervised learning entails learning situations where is an ample number of labelled data as compared to the unlabelled data. These are very natural situations, especially in domains where collecting data can be cheap (i. e. the internet) but labelling can be very expensive/time consuming. Many of the approaches to this problem attempt to infer a manifold, graph structure, or tree-structure from the unlabelled data and use spread in this structure to determine how labels will generalize to new unlabelled points. (Ghahramani 2004) Transduction is comparable to supervised learning in predicting new results with training inputs and outputs, as well as, test inputs – accessible during teaching, as basis, instead of behaving in accordance to some function. All these various types of Machine-Learning techniques can be used to fully implement Artificial Intelligence for a robust Cross-Language translation. One thing though, this literature is yet to discuss the planned process of machine learning this research shall employ, and that is by Neural Networks. There is yet to be a precise definition as to what Artificial Neural Network is, though many researchers would agree that it concerns a network of austere processing elements – otherwise known as the neurons, which presents complex behaviour established by the relationship amongst processing and parametrical elements. The main inspiration that lead to the development of this technique was from the investigation of, no lesser than, our Central Nervous System and the neurons (including their axons, dendrites and synapses) which make up its most important information processing elements. A neural network model would show us that simple nodes are connected forming a network of nodes — thus, its coining as â€Å"neural network. † A Neural Network functions in 2 different manners – learning and testing. The former would literally mean, the system learns the ways it is supposed to behave while the latter is when rigorous repetition of training would eventually result to a stable system, defined by its giving of constant satisfactory outputs. Most â€Å"abstract reasoning† of an Artificial Neural Networks are being implemented through three learning types – supervised, unsupervised and the reinforced learning, as has been introduced in the preceding paragraphs. Supervised learning entails a functional relationship between the input and the output. The system has to learn every possible IO pair that can be thought of. In case, there is a miss, all that has to be done is to input the said pair into the memory of the system hence when it resurfaces, the system knows how the handle it. Hence, basically, the goal is to ‘teach’ the network to identify the given input with the desired output. (Sordo 2002) This is usually best achieved when function f has already been derived to represent the behaviour of the Neural Network system. For unsupervised learning, we feed an input and a function to the system and record what behaviour the system outputs with such input and function. To begin with the learning process, there are no IO-pairs as opposed to supervised learning. Ultimately, the main goal of achieving the stable state will be attained through rigorous repetition of test with different sets of inputs. This type of systems – imploring unsupervised learning as its method of learning, are best displayed in statistical modelling, and the likes. Reinforcement learning stems its roots from the related psychological theory that has been conceived even before AI has been. Dynamically, in this type of learning, the machine interacts with its environment by producing actions a1, a2, †¦ These actions affect the state of the environment, which in turn results in the machine receiving some scalar rewards (or punishments) r1, r2, †¦ The goal of the machine is to learn to act in a way that maximizes the future rewards it receives (or minimises the punishments) over its lifetime. Reinforcement learning is closely related to the fields of decision theory (in statistics and management science), and control theory (in engineering). The fundamental problems studied in these fields are often formally equivalent, and the solutions are the same, although different aspects of problem and solution are usually emphasised. (Ghahramani 2004) Advantages of investing a system through Neural Networks. Neural networks with always have the outstanding characteristic of deriving intelligence from the usually complicated and, oftentimes, fuzzy data stored in the neurons. These systems, oftentimes, offer to be easy utilities to deduce patterns and perceive trends that are difficult to be noticed by either human observation or by our current computer intelligence. A trained neural network is regarded as an â€Å"expert† in the category of information it has been given to analyze. This expert can then be used to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer â€Å"what if† questions. (Chung et al 2007) It is used for adaptive learning on how to handle tasks based on the input provided for training or preliminary experience. It is a self-organizational tool that hones its own picture of the data it receives in as early as learning time. Neural networks another feature is that it is a real-time operation system where all calculation may be performed in parallel. Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding is another aspect of the neural system where partial destruction of a network leads to the corresponding degradation of performance. However, some network capabilities may be retained even with major network damage. The platform to a successful implementation. Several environments can be used in totally implementing a Cross-Language Translator through with the various and fast developments in computer technology since its introduction. In the succeeding paragraphs we will be tackling some of those that has come the author’s A-list. Microsoft . NET Framework. This framework form part of Microsoft Windows operating systems, containing a vast number of pre-coded resolutions to general program requirements, and governing the performance of programs written particularly for the framework. This framework is a vital Microsoft contribution and is projected on being utilized by most applications created and to be created for Windows platform. Pre-coded solutions outlining the framework’s Base Class Library (third layer from Operating System in the . NET Framework) encompass a wide range of software requirements in areas including: cross language translation, user interface, database connectivity, cryptography, data access, web application growth, network communications, and numeric algorithms. This layer contains classes, value types, and interfaces that you will use often in your development process. Most notably within the . NET Framework Base Classes is ADO. NET, which provides access to and management of data. Supervising the software’s runtime requirements, this software is written for the . NET Framework implemented in an environment. This runtime environment, which is also a part of the . NET Framework, is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR provides the appearance of an application virtual machine, so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the particular CPU that will implement the program. The CLR also provides other significant services such as security mechanisms, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together compose the . NET Framework. The . NET Framework is included with Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, and can be installed on some older versions of Windows. .NET Framework 1. 1 This is the first major . NET Framework upgrade that is accessible on its own as a redistributable package or in a software development kit since its publishing on April 3, 2003. It forms part of the second release of Microsoft Visual Studio . NET – the Visual Studio . NET 2003, and is the first version of the . NET Framework to be included as part of the Windows operating system, shipping with Windows Server 2003. 7 .NET Framework 3. 5 This version was authoritatively released to manufacturing (RTM) on November 19, 2007. As with . NET Framework 3. 0, this version applies the CLR of version 2. 0. It also installs . NET Framework 2. 0 SP1 adding some methods and properties to the BCL classes in version 2. 0 which are vital for version 3. 5 features such as Language Integrated Query (LINQ). These changes, however, do not involve applications written for version 2. 0 and a separately, new . NET Compact Framework 3. 5 was released in hand-in-hand with this revision to give support for additional features on Windows Mobile and Windows Embedded CE devices. The source code of the Base Class Library in this version has been partially released under Microsoft Reference License. 7 .NET Framework 3. 5 builds incrementally on the new features added in . NET Framework 3. 0 – for example, feature sets in Windows Workflow Foundation (WWF), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) and Windows CardSpace. This version also consists of a number of new features in several technology areas which have been added as new assemblies to avoid breaking changes. They are: (a) deep integration of Language Integrated Query (LINQ) and data awareness which will let to write code written in LINQ-enabled languages to filter, enumerate, and produce projections of several types of SQL data, collections, XML, and datasets by means of the same syntax; (b) ASP. NET AJAX 3. 5 lets you craft more resourceful, more interactive and highly-personalized Web experiences that work transversely with almost all the most popular browsers; (c) The New Web protocol sustain for building WCF services adding AJAX, JSON, REST, POX, RSS, ATOM, and several new WS-* standards; (d) Full tooling support in Visual Studio 2008 for WF, WCF, and WPF, including the new workflow-enabled services technology; and, (e) New classes in . NET Framework 3. 5 base class library (BCL) that address many common customer requests. Visual Studio 2008 and the . NET Framework 3. 5. The Microsoft Visual Studio development system is an appropriate development instrument devised to aid developers to tackle complex problems, thus create inventive resolutions. This system’s role is to improve the development process; hence, achieving breakthroughs would be easier and more satisfying. Using the Microsoft Visual Studio Development system will be very productive for this project since it would continually deliver better ways for cross language translations with less energy and with ease from other software. It has efficient form of code editors, IntelliSense, Wizards, and multiple coding languages in one integrated development environment (IDE) to high-tech applications in life- cycle management. New versions of Visual Studio keep bringing innovative tools to help developers focus on solving problems without wasting time. With this development system, software developers gain from an integrated product experience that spans tools, servers, and services. Visual Studio products work well together with other Microsoft software, such as Microsoft server products and the Microsoft Office system. Visual Studio offers a comprehensive choice of tools for all phases of software development, testing, deployment, integration, and management. Every kind of software developer, from novice to skilled professional, can use the Visual Studio because it is engineered to support the development across all types of devices such as PCs, servers, the Web, and mobile devices. Visual Studio is the most reliable tool that is engineered and tested to be always dependable, secure, interoperable, and compatible. Visual Studio offers an unparalleled combination of security features, scalability, and interoperability. Although Visual Studio always incorporates forward- thinking features, it is designed to ensure backward-compatibility everywhere possible. Being a set of technology capabilities, core products, and best practice guidance, the Microsoft Application Platform (MAP) focuses on aiding IT and development business partners to maximize opportunity. As one of its core products, Visual Studio has always and continues to help spearhead for the right customer links, business efficiencies, and value-added services through provision of a fully integrated and single development environment for all types of advances, including Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Office, Web, and mobile applications.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Selecting Employee

Learn how to select and hire the best employees for your open positions. Selection and evaluation techniques are explored that help you pick among qualified candidates. Employee selection processes are critical to hiring a superior staff. Learn to improve your employee selection methods. 10 Tips for Hiring the Right Employee Top Ten Tips for Selecting and Hiring the Right Employee Hiring the right employee is a challenging process. Hiring the wrong employee is expensive, costly to your work environment, and time consuming. Hiring the right employee, on the other hand, pays you back in employee productivity, a successful employment relationship, and a positive impact on your total work environment. Hiring the right employee enhances your work culture and pays you back a thousand times over in high employee morale, positive forward thinking planning, and accomplishing challenging goals. This is not a comprehensive guide to hiring an employee. But, these are key steps to hiring the right employee. 1. Define the Job Before Hiring an Employee Hiring the right employee starts with a job analysis.  The job analysis enables you to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. The information from the job analysis is fundamental to developing the job description for the new employee. The job description assists you to plan your recruiting strategy for hiring the right employee. Job HiringEasy Search & Posting: AyosDito Free Job Posting, No Sign Ups! www. AyosDito. ph Interview Strategy GuideGet a Free interview strategy for HR professionals. hr. mcleanco. om/interview-guide Employment ScreeningInternational Background Checks No hidden fees or minimum orders 2. Plan Your Employee Recruiting Strategy With the job description in hand, set up a recruiting planning meeting that involves the key employees who are hiring the new employee. The hiring manager is crucial to the planning. At this meeting, your recruiting strategy is planned and the execution begins. Teams that have worked together frequently in hiring an employee can often complete this step via email. 3. Use a Checklist for Hiring an Employee  This checklist for hiring an employee will help you systematize your process for hiring an employee. Whether it's your first employee or one of many employees you are hiring, this checklist for hiring an employee helps you keep track of your recruiting efforts. The checklist for hiring an employee keeps your recruiting efforts on track and communicates progress to interested employees and the hiring manager. 4. Recruit the Right Candidates When Hiring an Employee You can develop relationships with potential candidates long before you need them when hiring an employee.  These ideas will also help you in recruiting a large pool of candidates when you have a current position available. The more qualified candidates you can develop when hiring an employee, the more likely you are to locate a qualified potential employee. Read on to discover the best ways to develop your talent pool when hiring an employee. 5. Review Credentials and Applications Carefully The work of reviewing resumes, cover letters, job applications, and job application letters starts with a well-written job description.  Your bulletted list of the most desired characteristics of the most qualified candidate was developed as part of the recruiting planning process. Screen all applicants against this list of qualifications, skills, experience, and characteristics. You'll be spending your time with your most qualified candidates when hiring an employee. And, that is a good use of your time. 6. Prescreen Your Candidates The most important reason to prescreen candidates when hiring an employee is to save the interviewing and selection committee time.  While a candidate may look good on paper, a prescreening interview will tell you if their qualifications are truly a fit with your job. Additionally, in a prescreening interview, you can determine whether their salary expectations are congruent with your job. A skilled telephone interviewer will also obtain evidence about whether the candidate may fit within your culture – or not. 7. Ask the Right Job Interview Questions The job interview is a powerful factor in hiring an employee. The job interview is a key tool employers utilize in hiring.  The job interview questions asked are critical in magnifying the power of the job interview to help you in hiring the right employee. Interview questions that help you separate desirable candidates from average candidates are fundamental when hiring an employee. Job interview questions matter to employers. Here are sample job interview questions. 8. Check Backgrounds and References When Hiring an Employee Effective background checks are one of the most important steps when hiring an employee. You need to verify that all the presented, sterling credentials, skills, and experience are actually possessed by your candidate.  The background checks must include work references, especially former supervisors, educational credentials, employment references and actual jobs held, and criminal history. Other background checks when hiring an employee, such as credit history, must be specifically related to the job for which you are hiring an employee. 9. Extend a Job Offer The job offer letter is provided to the candidate you have selected for the position. Most frequently, the candidate and the organization have verbally negotiated the conditions of hire and the job offer letter confirms the verbal agreements about salary and benefits.  The more senior the position, however, the more likely the job offer will turn into a protracted negotiation about salary, benefits, employment termination, bonus potential, severance pay, stock options, and more. 10. Use Effective Employment Letters These sample employment letters will assist you to reject job candidates, make job offers, welcome employees, and more when hiring an employee. Use these sample employment letters to develop the employment letters you use in your organization when hiring an employee. New Employee Orientation: Employee Onboarding New employee orientation is the process you use for welcoming a new employee nto your organization. New employee orientation, often spearheaded by a meeting with the Human Resources department, generally contains information about safety, the work environment, the new job description, benefits and eligibility, company culture, company history, the organization chart and anything else relevant to working in the new company. New employee orientation often includes an introduction to each department in the company and training on-the-job. New employee orientation frequently includes spending time doing the jobs in each department to understand the flow of the product or service through the organization. Tips for a Better New Employee Orientation When we orient new hourly (non-exempt) employees, we provide a standard HR couple of hours on policies, procedures, company history, goals, culture, punching in and work rules. We give a company tour and hourly employees then train and cross-train on the job. Managerial and salaried (exempt) employees participate in an orientation that is custom-designed for them. It includes the above information that is received by all employees. Additionally, their orientation may last one to two weeks and it enables them to meet the whole organization, their direct reports and more. They should leave this orientation with a clear picture of the organization, its challenges, its goals and their opportunity to assist with progress. It is challenging to make sure salaried employees have the chance to do the orientation while also beginning their new job. Neither can be put on hold. My current new director spent the morning helping to write an RFP for a potential customer rather than attending his scheduled meetings. This is okay, but I don't want his orientation to get off track. It provides fundamental information he needs to succeed in this organization. From an HR perspective, this may not be ideal for making sure he gets the organization overview, but it is ideal for helping him integrate quickly into the working business of the company – and that's the point. Right? The best orientation I have ever known was instituted at Edgewood Tool and Manufacturing. Every manager who hired a new employee was required to write a 120 day orientation for the new employee. It involved one action a day. Actions included meeting the Director of Quality, calling on a customer and having lunch with the CEO. You can bet that new employee was thoroughly welcomed and integrated into the organization after 120 different orientation events. Orientation and Training of New Employees New employee orientation effectively integrates the new employee into your organization and assists with retention, motivation, job satisfaction, and quickly enabling each individual to become contributing members of the work team. New Employee Welcome Letter-A welcome letter to a new employee who has accepted your job offer confirms the employe's decision to accept the position. The welcome letter helps the new employee feel wanted and welcomed. Depending on the goal of your new employee welcome letter, these sample welcome letters will give you a template. See sample welcome letters for new employees. Onboarding-Onboarding is the process of acquiring, accommodating, assimilating and accelerating new team members, whether they come from outside or inside the organization. Effective onboarding of new team members is one of the most important contributions any hiring manager or HR professional can make to long-term success. Onboarding done right drives new employee productivity, accelerates results, and significantly improves talent retention. Yet few organizations manage the pieces of onboarding well. Purposes of Orientation Employers have to realize that orientation isn't just a nice gesture put on by the organization. It serves as an important element of the recruitment and retention process. Some key purposes are: * To Reduce Startup Costs: Proper orientation can help the employee get â€Å"up to speed† much more quickly, thereby reducing the costs associated with learning the job. To Reduce Anxiety: Any employee, when put into a new, strange situation, will experience anxiety that can impede his or her ability to learn to do the job. Proper orientation helps to reduce anxiety that results from entering into an unknown situation, and helps provide guidelines for behavior and conduct, so the employee doesn't have to experience the stress of guessing. * To Reduce Employee Turnover: Employee turnover increases as employees feel they are not valued, or are put in positions where they can't possibly do their jobs. Orientation shows that the organization values the employee, and helps provide the tools necessary for succeeding in the job. * To Save Time for the Supervisor: Simply put, the better the initial orientation, the less likely supervisors and co-workers will have to spend time teaching the employee. * To Develop Realistic Job Expectations, Positive Attitudes and Job Satisfaction: It is important that employees learn as soon as possible what is expected of them, and what to expect from others, in addition to learning about the values and attitudes of the organization. While people can learn from experience, they will make many mistakes that are unnecessary and potentially damaging. The main reasons orientation programs fail: The program was not planned; the employee was unaware of the job requirements; the employee does not feel welcome. Employee orientation is important – orientation provides a lot of benefits, and you can use feedback to make your orientations even better. Use Training and Development to Motivate Staff Building Your Employee Training and Development Program Want to keep your staff motivated about learning new concepts? The quality and variety of the employee training you provide is key for motivation. Reasons for employee training range from new-hire training about your operation, to introducing a new concept to a workgroup to bringing in a new computer system. Whatever your reason for conducting an employee training session, you need to develop the employee training within the framework of a comprehensive, ongoing, and consistent employee training program. This quality employee training program is essential to keep your staff motivated about learning new concepts and your department profitable. Essential Components of Employee Training Programs A complete employee training program includes a formal new hire training program with an overview of the job expectations and performance skills needed to perform the job functions. A new hire training program provides a fundamental understanding of the position and how the position fits within the organizational structure. The more background knowledge the new associate has about how one workgroup interrelates with ancillary departments, the more the new associate will understand his or her impact on the organization. Another aspect of a comprehensive employee training program is continuing education. The most effective employee training programs make continuing education an ongoing responsibility of one person in the department. This is an important function that will keep all staff members current about policies, procedures and the technology used in the department. New Hire Training A solid new hire training program begins with the creation of an employee training manual, in either notebook format or online. This manual acts as a building block of practical and technical skills needed to prepare the new individual for his or her position. In order for the department to understand current policies and procedures, a manager must ensure the department manuals or online employee training are kept current. This includes any system enhancements and / or change in policy or procedure. In addition, keep the user in mind when designing training manuals or online training; keep the employee training material interesting for the learner. Use language that is not â€Å"corporate† and include images and multi-media. Much of this employee training and reference material belongs online these days in a company Intranet. But, if your organization is not ready to embrace the online world, keep the manuals up-to-date and interesting. When possible, in computer training, incorporate visual images of the computer screen (multi-media screen capture) to illustrate functions, examples, and how tos. On the Job Training Another form of new hire training includes having the new associate train directly next to an existing associate. Some call this On the Job Training (OJT) or side-by-side training. This type of employee training allows the new associate to see first hand the different facets of the position. Also, OJT allows the new hire the opportunity to develop a working relationship with an existing associate. This type of employee training reinforces concepts learned in the initial training and should be used to reinforce and apply those same learned concepts. Continuing Education in Employee Training A continuing education program for a department is just as important as the new hire training. When training a new associate, I have found that they will only retain approximately 40 percent of the information learned in the initial training session. Therefore, a continuous effort must be placed on reminding the staff about various procedures and concepts. This continuing education can be formal or informal. (The author’s preference is always with a more informal approach. ) The formal, or traditional approach, to employee training often includes a member of management sending a memo to each associate. The informal, and often more appealing approach to a visual learner, is to send a one-page information sheet to staff. This information sheet, called a training alert, should be informative and presented in a non-threatening manner. Therefore, if the policy or procedure changes, the informal approach would better prepare the department to receive this presentation. New Employee Training – Is It Worth The Investment Getting off on the right foot Many companies provide some sort of introductory training or orientation for most of their new employees. It may take the form of an older employee assigned to show the new employee â€Å"the ropes. † Or it may be left to the HR department or the individual's new supervisor to show them where the coffee pot is and how to apply for time off. Many organizations, especially in government and academia, have created new employee training that is designed, exclusively or primarily, to provide mandated safety familiarization. Yet some companies in highly competitive industries recognize the value in New Employee Orientation (NEO) that goes much farther. They require several weeks or even months of training to familiarize every new employee with the company, its products, its culture and policies, even its competition. There is a measurable cost to that training, but is it worth it? Let's look at some of the issues. Some Background Facts The technology in the workplace is changing very rapidly and companies that can't keep up will drop out of competition. A survey by the Ontario (Canada) Skills Development Office found 63% of the respondents planned to â€Å"introduce new technology into the workplace that would require staff training. A third of the respondents included â€Å"improving employee job performance† and â€Å"keeping the best employees† as desired outcomes. The American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) reports that less than $1500 per employee was spent for training in 1996. The largest part of that (49 percent) was spent for technical and professional training. Only two percent was spent for New Employee Orientation and three percent on quality, competition and business practices training.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Blood and Blood Product Safety and the Role of Government

One million Americans are infected with HIV. One in six of these people do not know that they are infected. In the 1980s, about 8,000 hemophiliacs were infected with HIV and hepatitis due to blood supply infections. Companies that sell drugs used to manage blood coagulation of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Disease Control Center (CDC), Government, National Hemophilia Foundation (NHF), and hemophilia patients I know that the factor is contaminated. Either way, due to the high price of these products, they still sell it. The health of the United States depends on blood and technology. Blood and blood products play an important and irreplaceable role in medicine. Every year 5 million people receive erythrocytes, blood coagulation factors, or blood transfusions from plasma products. Traditionally, the technical aspects of blood have long been dedicated to improving blood safety, collection and storage. The system is not perfect, and some experts have expressed concern that r eaction to Jika is too slow and too cautious. Finding the right balance between speed and accuracy is always a problem and it is worth reviewing in future articles. However, from the viewpoint of winter of 2017, we can see that confirmed case of infection by transfusion has not been confirmed in the United States. In the past Prior to blood transfusion, many measures were taken to ensure the quality, compatibility and safety of blood products. In 2012, 70% of countries formulate domestic blood policies, 62% of which enact specific laws covering transfusion safety and quality. Blood transfusions usually use blood sources: themselves (autologous blood transfusion) or other people (allogeneic or allogeneic transfusions). The latter is more general than the former. To use other people's blood, you need to donate blood first. Blood is most often injected intravenously into whole blood and collected with anticoagulants. In developed countries, donors are usually anonymous to recipients, b ut products in blood banks can always be individually tracked through donation, testing, separation of ingredients, storage, and delivery to recipients throughout the cycle .

Operations case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Operations - Case Study Example Discuss about the initial floor plan of the Waterloo Mongolian Grill and the proposed design. (Exhibit 4) There should be continuous collection of feedback from customers and complain should be addressed as soon as possible. The proposed changes on design of the second restaurant should be continued to be checked against the current restaurant and see if it is still viable. John Butkus who is the owner of Mongolian Grill Restaurant located in London, Ontario needs to make design decision for his second restaurant in Waterloo, Ontario. (Silk and Haywood 547). Despite the first restaurant being a success, he needs to makes some changes to the new restaurant to be able to accommodate many customers and reduce the delays while serving customers. The existing restaurant is small in size and cannot receive reservations. John wants to have a unique concept to outdo the other competitors. 1.) Immediately call a meeting with the staff of Mongolian Grill Restaurant and explain to them the major design decision that is need in the second restaurant in Waterloo, Ontario. Currently, Mongolian Grill Restaurant is faced with the challenge of limited capacity and low speed of customer service. (Silk and Haywood 548). The staff will explain to the new customers the features of Mongolian Grill. These features are creation of environment for entertainment and interaction, involving customers in the preparation of meal and a lot of food which is healthy and fresh. New customers will be explained about the three food preparation stations which are food bar, the sauce, oil and spice bar, and cooking station.( Exhibit 1) 2.) Take notes on the attendance of the customers during different nights, the average trips a customer makes during dinner and the average time taken by each customer to be served. As the interactions with the customers continue, the staff shall take notes on number of customers who come each night.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Law,Ethicsand globaisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Law,Ethicsand globaisation - Essay Example , Tamanaha submits, â€Å"was the reflection of the divine order consistent with the good that intended to eliminate injustice and prevailed stability within society.† (2004: p 9) The same is applied with the present day legal systems prevailing in various regions of the world that have been articulated for the best interests of general public; fire safety law of the UK is also among such legal frameworks. Fire Safety Order 2005 UK: Fire Safety Law has been introduced for the security of the people from being victim to the breaking of fire, and training them regarding taking up immediate measures in order to avoid the grave consequences of the sudden fire eruption. â€Å"The purpose of the Fire Safety Act is to educate and encourage persons and communities to apply the principles of fire safety so as to prevent fires, preserve human life and avoid unwarranted property loss due to the destructive forces of fire.† (2002, c. 6, s. 2) Fire safety law encompasses commercial and business areas, which does not apply on residential areas of society. Fire Safety Order 2005 applies on the employer of some business premises, self-employed individuals having control of the premises, and organisations responsible for the maintenance of some specific building, area or premises. In addition, the law is also applied on the managers, executives, employees and persons responsible for look after of the premises. Sec 3 (a) and (b) define the responsible persons within a business place accountable for fire fighting and controlling. According to the provisions of law a responsible person means: Hence, the UK law delegates the entire powers to the private entrepreneur and state is somewhat free from fire prevention responsibilities. But it does not mean that the state stands as indifferent from the afflicted area altogether. On the contrary, it is the state that performs its obligations on the basis of assessment made by the responsible person defined in FSO. In addition, Section 4 of

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Fatima Chooljian and the X-ray Patient Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Fatima Chooljian and the X-ray Patient - Essay Example He might have said that if somebody is as particular about practicing religion as the Muslim radiographer supposedly was considering the fact that she wore Hijab at the workplace, he/she must not be in such professions that impart the need for close encounters between members of opposite genders. Irrespective of whatever the older patient discusses about his initial thoughts or perceptions about his encounter with the Muslim radiographer, there is great likelihood of his discussion going in favor of the Muslim radiographer since the commencement of the discussion upon Jesus. He might say that bringing up the topic of Jesus for discussion was very odd at that moment considering that he was having an X-ray done from a stranger who was a Muslim radiographer, but in spite of that, the Muslim radiographer’s response to his question and the discussion that followed was very gentle and meaningful. He might even appreciate the fact that the Muslim radiographer said, â€Å"I may be wr ong, sir, but that’s how I understand it† because this reflects that the Muslim radiographer was not offensive or criticizing in her response to the older patient’s refusal to accept her definition of Jesus.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Practical Lessons in Applying Accounting Standards Essay

Practical Lessons in Applying Accounting Standards - Essay Example Different genres of writing can, therefore, be used to convey messages to different types of audiences for the achievement of the author’s objectives. For instance, shopping lists are used to remind shoppers on what to buy as journals are used to deliver information to the public about particular topics. The right choice of the media is dependent on the understanding of the audience. In an attempt to develop a good understanding of rhetorical analysis, I analyzed a financial report by Bruce Pounder entitled â€Å"Practical Lessons in Applying Accounting Standards†. The case study by the accounting editor carries practical lessons that target accountants. The author got the idea of publishing the work after getting in an online discussion with colleagues about the manner in which the United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) need to be applied to specific real-world situations. The publication presents the thoughts and refined discussion consensus of Pounder and his colleagues on the issue. He addresses the key questions they had discussed in their online discussion and the three main points that he thinks are core to arriving at such a conclusion. Although â€Å"Practical Lessons in Applying Accounting Standards† targets accountants who are already engaged in the accounting field, it is also helpful to those pursuing careers in accounting and business-related fields. The author discusses fundamental concepts that would prepare learners for the real world of accounting practice. In addition to providing insightful knowledge and skills that the author has in the field of accounting, he alludes to theories and researched frameworks of other equally knowledgeable accountants to provide a comprehensive look at his subject. This essay focuses on some of the rhetorical appeals and strategies that Pounder uses in his work.  

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Drama, Comed, and Documentary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Drama, Comed, and Documentary - Essay Example Generally, both drama and comedy attract a larger audience when compared to documentaries. Comedy contains a lot of humor and therefore the liberals and the moderates make up the wide audience that is enjoyed. Conservatives, on the other hand, are able to relish documentaries, News and business channels and Sports. There are many similarities as well as differences between Drama, Comedy, and Documentaries. While Drama appeals to one's emotions and feelings, Comedy does not appeal to one's emotions but appeals to one's senses. If a person is not a humorous person or does not have a good sense of humor, he will not have the capacity to enjoy any type of Comedy. Drama does not have to be all that serious, neither does Comedy have to be totally hilarious. They could borrow from and lend to each other. Drama is based on people in difficult situations who try to find solutions to come out of it. It is primarily held together by emotionalism. It is supposed to look real and move the audiences emotionally. Comedy, on the other hand, is mostly hilarious and engages its audience by compelling them to interact, laugh, cry and exhibit the humorous side of their personality. In Drama, there is little or no interaction, but it makes one feel the situation that is being enacted. Drama draws its audience slowly and gradually, whereas Comedy has the capacity to grab at its audience on the spur of the moment. The centrifugal point in Drama is that it has a strong emotional knot that is slowly unraveled as the scenes proceed. Comedy could be a completely separate track all by itself and does not have to depend on other factors. In Drama, we have both Tragedy and Comedy. Tragedy goes beyond just Drama because it has heightened emotion, creates a greater impact on the audience and culminates in a catharsis.

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Canadian history pre-confederation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Canadian history pre-confederation - Essay Example All the different groups of people who resided in geographical region of Canada added in one way or the other to the culture and identity that we recognize today. However, the popular version of history as it is taught to the masses often glosses over the contribution of and lifestyle followed by one set of people, that is, the slave groups who were also amongst the early settlers of the region. Canadian history, when it discusses the role of slavery and the slave trade within the region only highlights the fact that the government was amongst the first to hasten the demise of the abhorrent practice. The Canadian society as a whole has difficulty accepting the fact that slavery was actively practiced in New France and this fact has been documented as far back as 1629 with the arrival of the Kirke brothers and their young slave boy in Quebec2. The institution of slavery formed a significant part of Canadian society and hiding this fact is doing a disservice to the identity of the thousands of the African and Aboriginal men, women and children whose lives were impacted and molded by the practice. Slavery was a part of life in New France as well as under the Lower Canada during British rule. Slaves were owned by people from various demographics including religious, military and political leaders and the merchant class3. Popular historical narrative tended to portray that the slave trade had only reached the region after the British had conquered the region in 1760, however in the book â€Å"Canada’s Forgotten Slaves: Two Hundred Years of Bondage† historian Marcel Trudel provides extensive details of the people who lived as slaves before that time as well as the people who eagerly owned and ‘flaunted’ them. He states that â€Å"Slavery in Quebec was not some economic imperative, but rather a form of public extravagance which conferred

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Discussion Dissertation Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Discussion - Dissertation Example More or less, the same preference patterns are noted among G8 students from both genders. In addition, the same pattern of preferences has been found for the overall sample. Academic achievement also comes into play, and has been emphasized by Nolting (2002) who said that it goes up when students are actually aware of what learning style suits them best, as well as by Bahar (2009) who further noted that achievers displayed the key traits of independence, competitiveness, competence and participation. Wallace, meanwhile, found that students benefited a lot more when they worked alone as compared to when they worked within a group – provided, of course, that these students actually knew how to work effectively on their own. Still another study by Yazicilar et al (2009) focused on 5th grade students in order to correlate academic achievement and retention based on whether or not they received varied educational intervention depending on their learning style preference. This study , in turn, found that said treatment would have a marked impact on academic achievement among students. ... tyle as part of cognitive style and stated that â€Å"learning style, as one aspect of cognitive style, refers to a person’s characteristic style of acquiring and using information in learning and /or solving problems† (p.145). The outcomes above suggest that the quad learning style is preferred by high achievers, whereas low achieving students are more inclined to use multi-learning styles. Research Question 2 Are their differences in reading achievement of students due to their learning style preference? To answer this question, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) analyses were carried out. This is to ascertain the influence of gender and each of the learning style types (VARK7G and multi-single) on the two dependent variables, RAAF and FT scores. The same procedure has also been carried out to determine the effect of grade level and learning styles category on reading achievement between males and females. Analyses of variance were carried out as a post hoc te st to MANOVA. To control for Type 1 error, the Least Significant Differences procedure was carried out. One finding from these is that there were significant differences for both gender and grade level on RAAF. No such differences were observed on VARK7G learning style categories in relation to the RAAF scores and FT scores. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between grade and gender on the reading achievement variables. A significant interaction between gender and learning styles VARK7G on the dependent variables. Moreover, the ANOVA outcomes indicate that there were significant gender differences on RAAF and FT scores. Moreover, there was a significant interaction effect between grade and gender on RAAF. Gender and learning style (VARK7G) likewise exerted a significant effect on RAAF. The

The Help Book Report Essay Example for Free

The Help Book Report Essay The Help, by Kathryn Stockett (2009) is a novel set in Jackson, Mississippi during the civil rights movements of the 1960s. It follows the lives of three women –one white, a recent college graduate, and two black maids. The book was a huge success and was turned into a major motion picture. However sadly like many overnight sensation novels The Help has an interesting storyline but is poorly executed. One problem I had with the writing of this novel was the contrasts she drew about the dialogues of the characters. In the book the author tells that one of the characters, Celia Foote, speaks incorrect English because of the poverty she was raised in (another character, Minnie, comments on her accent and way of speaking) however, when Celia speaks in the book her dialogue is impeccable. This is shown in the quote (for the purpose of differentiation, Celia’s speech is shown in italics and Minnie’s in bold) â€Å"They dont like me because of what they think I did†¦ They dont like you ‘cause they think you white trash. Celia has been said to speak in the same way as the black maids, but when she and Minnie are conversing they speak entirely differently. Note the way that because is pronounced- Minnie has obliterated the ‘be’. The contradiction the author has used suggests her incompetency as a writer. Another is the way this book was billed. The Help is said to be a true to events, accurate recount of life in the South in the 60’s, but the reader does no t have to look too deeply into the book to tell that this is untrue. Perhaps if the writer had spent a little more time researching the era she was going to write in her novel would be worthy of this acclaim. it is clear to almost anybody who reads the novel that she is totally unworthy of this praise and it is disgraceful that she does not seem to care that she is misinforming the readers of her book if they take her word for how life was in the South. This book became wildly successful only because it was thrown in the faces of those who would read it without really thinking into it, enjoying the idea of a white saviour to make America’s dark black civil rights history seem like it wasn’t really so bad. The very idea that the book is based on- that black maids would become so trusting of a white woman who also happens to be friends with their employer, to allow their stories about how difficult it is to work for the white upper class, is so far fetched that it borders on insanity. Stockett then proceeds to illustrate her story to seem s though it would be perfectly plausible. Whilst this would be perfectly fine if Stockett had ensured that the book was received as an entirely fictious work, Stockett also manages to belittle or remove the two most powerful influences of the time; racism and male dominance. I believe this to be because the two did not fit in properly with the storyline and how she wanted it to go- inst ead of rising to the challenge and changing her plot a little to incorporate the two, she once again proves her lack of any real eloquence in writing. I would go so far as to say that her imagination was the only reason she made it in the writing industry as it was definitely not her writing prowess. She wanted her antagonist (or heroine I feel she would prefer), a white upper class woman, to be completely blame free, and so blamed any racism, although to her credit there was very little, on the way she was raised, and blamed her mother for it all. (she does the same for Elisabeth’s daughter, saying that she will also grow up to be racist). Then she draws a complete parallel with Hattie, who is an extreme racist and whose mother is one of the least racist characters in the book. Hattie did not learn her racism from her mother, therefore Stockett cannot make the claim that the parents of a child are to blame. Nevertheless, my experience from reading The Help was not a purely negative one. There were many moments in the story that if I just ignored the constant contradictions in the text I found very moving or entertaining. The dedication Skeeter showed to finding her old maid Constantine, who raised her, and the evident love she had for her, was incredibly touching. Tying her into the story and revealing that it was because of her that Skeeter is not racist was possibly one of the only smart literary moves the author made –that is if you look past the fact that everyone else in her social circle and their parents were raised in the exact same way and not a single one of them turned out like Skeeter. The way that Abileen cared for Mae Moebly was also very touching, and the words â€Å"you is kind, you is smart, you is important† have become synonymous with The Help. These two aspects can be linked together in more than just how touching they both were. (although from what I can gather of Stockett’s writing ‘prowess’ or lack thereof, I cannot decipher whether or not this was purposeful) The way that Abileen cares for Mae Moebly and how Mae sees her more as her mother than her own mother Elizabeth, is a representative for how Skeeter was raised by Constantine instead of her own mother, and xplains why Skeeter was so desperate to find Constantine. Overall, I was incredibly disappointed with this novel as the author butchered an amazing concept that, had it been in an accomplished writers hands could have been an incredible story. The author has a very talented imagination, but perhaps it would be better for her to in future just create the concept and allo w someone who actually has some degree of eloquence to write the actual novel, or alternatively to hire an editor who actually knows how to proofread for contradictions.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Pest Analysis of Sainsburys in a 3rd World Country Essay Example for Free

Pest Analysis of Sainsburys in a 3rd World Country Essay Interest rate, economic growth, monetary and fiscal policy, inflation and the exchange rates are the important economic factors. These factors play a vital role in a firm’s business strategy and decision making. Every country has it’s own culture and the nation has a strong impact on their living. The social and cultural influences on business vary from country to country. Social  factors include the cultural aspects and include health consciousness, language, population growth rate, age distribution, career attitudes. Trends in social factors affect the demand for a companys products and how that company operates. For example, the roles of men and women in the society. Furthermore, companies may change various management strategies to adapt to these social trends Technological  factors have vital place in PEST analysis. Some markets are labour intensive and some are capital intensive. Technological factors determine  barriers to entry, minimum efficient production level and influence  outsourcing  decisions. It is one of the major drivers of globalization and is the base for competitive advantage. Innovation is offered to the customers or consumers through technology for example internet banking, smart phones etc. It also enables the firm to produce a product cheaply and to a better quality in standard. Pakistan is the sixth most populated country in the world with over 180 million people. It is estimated that the 25% of the population belongs to the middle income class. It is also estimated that 55% of the Pakistani population is in the 10-40 years age bracket. The upper middle-income class is estimated at 17 million with relatively high per capita income which favours more consumer spending. The average Pakistani consumer spends 42% of his income on food related products. The upcoming changes in demographic will create opportunities and challenges for businesses in Pakistan. Pakistan’s food retail sector is unorganised and highly dominated by independent small stores. Over the past few years, some large European food retailers have opened stores in all major Pakistani metropolitan cities like Makro, Metro and Carrefour (Hyper star). Pakistani families are attracted towards these stores due to their strategic location, multiple product range and imported processed food. Studies also show that there has been a significant shift to organized format of shopping from traditional format, in urban areas. This provides a challenging and profitable opportunity to other food retailers to enter the market. Sainsburys provides convenient shopping under one roof, has wide range of products, consumer friendly environment, large storage and discounted prices. These factors give Sainsburys an advantage over other food retailers currently present in Pakistan. If Sainsburys decides to enter in food retail sector then it has to perform a PEST analysis. PEST Analysis of Sainsburys in Pakistan : Political Factors : The political factors revolve around the current government in a country. Currently, in Pakistan, the ruling party is Pakistan People’s Party which was democratically elected in 2008. Though it is backed by western powers but still is considered to be a weak government. The basic questions arise such as how stable is the political or is there any government intervention in the economic policy making or laws and legislation protecting the businesses. Unfortunately, due to weak governments in the past, the security and corruption has been the key issues Pakistan has been facing over the the last decade. Which certainly is not a good sign for any foreign investors. However, giants in food-retail sectors like Metro and Carrefour ( hyper star) have set an example with an increasing growth in profit and expansion even in such circumstances. Sainsburys may enter in the Pakistani market with it’s variety of products which are available under one roof, as the increasing trend in urban areas shows, there will be high demand for it. Political factors may also include the goods and services which the governments want to provide or be provided. Sainsburys collects much of it’s revenue by selling it’s wide range of wines and spirits. Pakistani law prohibits the sale or consumption of any type of wines and spirits within its geographical boundaries, Sainsburys will not be allowed to sell it in their stores which may negatively affect their sales. Government of Pakistan ensures that there is foreign investment in Pakistan and it has signed a few trade agreements too. It also provides foreign investors the incentives to invest here. Partial ownership by the Pakistan government usually serves as an insurance policy for the share holders and the investors. Economic Factors: Extremely volatile oil prices are the root cause of global financial crisis in Pakistan which has also worsened the energy crisis. These two factors increase the cost of production. High inflation is a key resultant of it As Sainsburys produce much of it’s products in stores so they may go beyond their feasible region in producing a product. Interest rates are at their peak, economic growth is quite slow and this is due to the low level of lending and purchasing power of the consumer is weak. Though it is a labour intensive country and labour supply is quite high and also available at low cost than most other countries but unemployment is rising regardless of the above mentioned fact. The gap between rich and poor continues to expand and the percentage of poor is increasing everyday. However relatively quite cheaper labour may do a significant impact in Sainsburys production. It will also bring employment opportunities for young and skilled labour. Heavy loans from financial institutions like IMF and world bank has made the government in debt upto neck and there are no significant changes in sight. However financial aid packages in the name of war on terror and from the friends of Pakistan has kept the economy from collapsing. Pakistan has integrated with global economy and has brought positive impact on economy with increase in GDP. Despite of the worse conditions, Investing in such a country where cheap labour is available and more than half of the country’s population lies in the labour force, targeting middle-income class-keeping the fact in mind that government provides support to private investors would not be a bad decision. Social Factors : The culture and religion are very close to each other in Pakistan. As mentioned above this will affect the sales of wines and spirits of Sainsburys as it is not only prohibited by the dominant religion and prohibited by law but the targeted class does not accept it too. Health and Education are the two important sectors for any developing nations and Pakistan lack both of them and government of Pakistan fails to allocate the required budget in both the sectors. However, people like to shop and come with families to the big retail stores. There has been a significant shift from traditional to organized format. The studies show that 11% of the population tend to buy long life food related products in advance for a month. Sainsburys provides a healthy and safe environment to work with,which for a change would attract the people to work and shop here. In comparison to the past, women have also started to contribute in the labor force. Language will be a barrier for the citizens of Pakistan as english is not the first language in Pakistan. Buying imported products is considered a status symbol in Pakistan so there is a high demand for foreign products in Pakistan and is appreciated in the local market. According to studies people spend 42% of their income on food related products. So there will be high demand for a food related products provided by Sainsburys. Technological Factors : Technological expertise is overflowed in Pakistan as the labour supply and demand for IT professionals is high. There has been an improvement in the industrial sector but still the country’s imports are higher than exports. Since it is a labour intensive area and not capital intensive so use of technology higher the cost of production but shift to focus more on labour may help Sainsburys to produce it’s products relatively cheaper. There is also a trend of buying products online seen. Sainsburys already provides the service of buying it’s products online which saves much time so the typical â€Å"9-5† workforce can also be targeted.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Theories In First Language Acquisition English Language Essay

Theories In First Language Acquisition English Language Essay Since, the second language is an additional language after we acquire the first language, the L2 learning process can be influenced by the L1 learning process This essay will demonstrate the similarities and differences in L1 and L2 acquisition by discussing various theories. Then, draw a conclusion based on the evidence provided and my own experience. Definition First Language Acquisition First Language Acquisition or also known as the Child Language Acquisition is a process whereby children from infancy through early school years acquire their first languages (Lightbown Spada, 2006). The term First Language Acquisition or FLA can be referred to the field that investigates the process by which children develop to use words and sentences in their first language, to communicate with other people (Dictionary of Sociolinguistics, 2004). Second Language Acquisition According to a Dictionary of Sociolinguistics (2004), the term Second Language Acquisition or SLA can be referred to the academic discipline that investigate the process of human when learning second language (L2) or additional languages other than the first language. It involves the ability of people to use and develop a complex system of sound, word, sentence structure, and meaning of any non-native language (Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, 2005). It also tries to understand factors such as environment, individual differences, and social aspect which can be crucial factors underlining the acquire of second language (Ortega, 2009). Theories in First Language Acquisition Various theories and approaches have been developed over the past years attempting to study and analyze how do children acquire their mother tongue. This essay will identify two main theories that explain the learning process of the childs first language: Behaviourism and Nativist or Innateness theory. Behaviourism The behaviorism theory assumes how do children speak that children imitate what they hear, and then continue with positive support, children learn language through conditioning and habit formation (Ellis, 2008). According to B.F. Skinner and his colleagues (Gass Larry, 2008), learning or a change of behaviour on the part of the learner, is brought about by a process known as operant conditioning which is the result of repeated training. Operant means voluntary behaviour which is the result of learners own free-will and is not forced by any outsider or thing (Ortega, 2009). The learner will demonstrate the new behaviour first as a response to a system of a reward or punishment, and finally it will become an automatic response. Behaviourists believe that learning a language is no different from learning anything else. It becomes a habit by the stimulus-response-reinforcement-repetition process (Cook, 2001). The behaviourists also claim that we learn by imitation and by association (Lightbown Spada, 2006). However, psycholinguists argue that imitation is not enough because it is not only the mechanical repetition but also natural exposure that children acquire language (Cook, 2001). Therefore, from the behaviourist approach, language acquisition can be seen as a stimulus-response process. Children learn language by immitation and analogy. The roles of imitation, repetition, reinforcement, and motivation are essential in learning the language. The First Language Acquisition is thus the result of nature which based on practicing. Nativist or Innateness theory Unlike the behaviourist approach that does not take into consideration the childs own cognitive processes, the Innateness Hypothesis proposed by linguist Noam Chomsky supports the idea that language acquisition has a biological foundation (Ortega, 2009). He claims that children learn their first languages through cognitive learning and acquires them by natural exposure (Ortega, 2009). That means both nature and nurture influence the acquisition of language in children. He hypothesized that children are born with a specific innate ability to discover for themselves the underlying rules of a language system on the basis of the samples of a natural language they are exposed to (Lightbown Spada, 2006). This innate endowment was seen as a sort of template, containing the principles that are universal to all human beings. This is called Universal Grammar (UG). As defined by Chomsky (1976, as cited by Cook, 2001 pp181-182) Universal Grammar is the system of principles, conditions, and rule s that are elements or properties of all human languages à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ the essence of human language. According to Chomsky, there are principles, which allow or prevent a specific structure from occurring in all human languages, and parameters, which govern ways in which human languages differ, usually expressed as a limited choice between two options (Cook, 2001). These principles and parameters are built in the human mind. In other words, children have an innate faculty that instructs them while learning of language (Mitchell and Myles, 2004: 33). Chomsky also introduced the Language Acquisition Device or LAD to explain that there is some innate mental capacity which help the children to process all the languages they hear since they were born (Cook, 2001). Thus, from the innatist approach, language is an innate or in-born process. Children learn language by application. It argued that language learning is not a behavior but a specific mental process and emphasized on the important role of exposure to language. Theories in Second Language Acquisition Behaviourism Behaviourism gave birth to a stimulus-response (S-R) theory which sees language as a set of structures and acquisition as a matter of habit formation (Larsen-Freeman Long, 1991). By ignoring any internal mechanisms, it takes into account the linguistic environment and the stimuli it produces. It is suggested that learning is an observable behaviour which is automatically acquired by means of stimulus and response in the form of mechanical repetition. Thus, to acquire a language is to acquire automatic linguistic habits. According to Johnson (2004), [B]ehaviorism undermined the role of mental processes and viewed learning as the ability to inductively discover patterns of rule-governed behavior from the examples provided to the learner by his or her environment. Larsen-Freeman and Long (1991) consider that S-R models offer little promises as explanations of SLA, except for perhaps pronunciation and the rote-memorization of formulae. This view of language learning emerged research on contrastive analysis, especially error analysis (Ortega, 2009) . It has the main focus of which is the interference of ones first language in the target language. According to Ellis (2008), an important reaction to behaviourism was the interlanguage studies, as the simple comparison between first and second language neither explained nor described the language produced by L2 learners. In this essay, interlanguage studies will be excluded as the concern of the area has been mainly with the acquisition of grammatical morphemes or specific language structures. Universal grammar theory According to Cook (2001), as a counterpoint to the environmental perspective, Chomskys followers try to understand SLA in the light of his universal grammar (UG) theory, a human innate endowment. Chomsky is interested in the nature of language and sees language as a mirror of the mind (Gass Selinker, 2008). Although he is not concerned with SLA, his work has been influencing studies in this area. According to his theory, it can be seen that every human being is biologically endowed with the Language Acquisition Device (LAD), which is responsible for the initial state of language development. The UG theory considers that the input from the environment is insufficient to account for language acquisition. In the same perspective, White (2003:22) says that [I]f it turns out that the L2 learner acquires abstract properties that could not have been induced from the input, this is strongly indicative that principles of UG constrain interlanguage grammars, parallel to the situation of L1 ac quisition. As Mitchel and Myles (2004:94) remind us, The universal Grammar approach is only interested in the learner as a processor of a mind that contains language and not as a social being. Comprehension hypothesis Influenced by Chomskys assumptions on language as an innate faculty, Krashen developed an influential proposal to explain SLA which he first named as monitor model with emphasis on the contrast between learning and acquisition, then called it the input hypothesis (Krashen 1978, cited in Lightbown Spada, 2006). It focuses on the data which feed acquisition, and more recently, comprehension hypothesis emphasizing the mental process as responsible for acquisition (Ellis, 2008). According to Krashen (2004:1), [T]he Comprehension Hypothesis is closely related to other hypotheses. The Comprehension Hypothesis refers to subconscious acquisition, not conscious learning. The result of providing acquirers with comprehensible input is the emergence of grammatical structure in a predictable order. A strong affective filter, such as high anxiety, will prevent input from reaching those parts of the brain that promote language acquisition (Cook, 2001). According to Lightbown and Spada (2006), Kra shens model views acquisition in a linear perspective which not only establishes a cause and effect relationship between input and acquisition but also states that the grammatical structure is acquired in a predictable order. Nonetheless, like in the other theories discussed so far, his theory does not go beyond the acquisition of grammatical structures. Krashens model lacks research evidence. As Cook (2001) points out it makes sense in its own terms but is not verifiable. Interaction theory Other attempts to explain SLA are the different versions of the interaction hypothesis defended by Hatch (1978) and by Long (1981, 1996), who did not accept Krashens Input Hypothesis. Both Hatch and Long consider that input alone is not sufficient to explain SLA. Hatch disagrees that learners first learn structures and then use them in discourse. Hatch considers the reverse possibility. One learns how to do conversation, one learns how to interact verbally, and out of this interaction syntactic structures are developed (Harch, 1978 p. 404). Based on an empirical study, Long (1981) observed that in conversations between native and non-native speakers, there are more modifications in interaction than in the input provided by the native speakers. Long does not reject the positive role of modified input, but claims that modifications in interactions are consistently found in successful SLA. Long (1996) suggests that negotiation for meaning, especially negotiation work that triggers inter actional adjustments by the NS or more competent interlocutor, facilitates acquisition because it connects input, internal learner capacities, particularly selective attention, and output in productiveways. However, Larsen-Freeman and Long (1991) argue that the interactionist views are more powerful than other theories because they invoke both innate and environmental factors to explain language learning. Similarities and Differences between FLA and SLA Age: a key factor differentiate L1 from L2 Age can be regarded as another key factor displaying the differences between L1 and L2 acquisition. Since, in the L1 acquisition, children normally complete the process by four to six years old, while the age range in acquiring the L2 can be varied wildly (Ortega, 2009). Moreover, according to Ellis (2008), age is recognized as being important owing to the assumption that older learners tend to be less successful in regard to SLA than younger learners, which may be owing to the fact that target-language norms do not pose as much of a threat to younger learners identities. However, there are two issues that many theorists have been arguing about the relationship between age and L2 acquisition. That the age effect can be approached from biological explanations or from non-biological explanations (Ortega, 2009). From the biological perspective (Gass Selinker, 2008), there is the Critical Period Hypothesis in L2 learning which is proposed by Penfield and Roberts (1959) and Lenneberg (1967). On the other hand, from the non-biological perspective, some researchers have emphasized on the influence of socio-educational and affective-motivational forces (Ortega, 2009).

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Journey :: essays research papers

Journey’s come in many different forms, some being lengthy in duration while others may be just hours long. On occasion, one’s path to self-knowledge may be found in doing the same things as one used to do in a whole new environment and finding that the ways of the past are inadequate for the ways of the present. This concept is shown in the untitled narrative by Sara Chase, where the discovery is that her study habits from high school no longer correlate with what she will need to do to be successful in college.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Failure is a common fear for almost everyone. It is something that we try to avoid as much as possible. In the narrative, the author panics when thoughts of failure flood into her head. The author states â€Å"†¦the confidence that I acquired early slipping away and fear filling its place.† â€Å"All this over one little question?† we ask ourselves. This made me wonder: Is what we strive for as the vision of self-knowledge actually perfection or is self-knowledge realized when we finally accept the fact that perfection is unattainable?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The crucial element, in my opinion, was not a paragraph or a single sentence; it was one word that was repeated numerous times throughout the narrative: confidence. Is confidence what leads us to self-knowledge—the confidence to continue on, to try new ways when old ways fail? Is confidence a pre-indicator of a successful journey or can you claim self-knowledge without possessing confidence?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The past serves as a useful reference for the present and the future. In this case, the past could not compete at the same level as the present. But this fact was only realized after failure, disappointment, and self-pity, as the author states. The past, in someway, develops who you are and what experiences and life lessons we take from the past and use in the present create a future that brings us closer to self-knowledge.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  This narrative is like Sir Gawain and the Green Knight in some ways. Sir Gawain reacts to the fear of death when he takes the green sash from the Lady. He also fears for his life and flinches when he thinks the Green Knight is going to swing at his neck.

Fear :: essays research papers

FEAR ?@   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Recently, earthquakes have hit many places like, Kobe, Greece, Turkey and Taiwan. Moreover, some scientists predict that a huge earthquake will hit the Tokai area and it will have enough power to destroy the Tokyo area. I fear earthquakes for 3 reasons: anticipation of disaster, being on the point of death in the rubble, and becoming injured or sick. First, when any size earthquake hits, even a small one, I feel fear because my mind says, ?gSomeday there will be huge earthquake?h. Actually, a huge earthquake has not come yet, but psychologically I feel fear. For example, a few days ago an earthquake hit Tokyo. It was small but my heart beat so quickly during and after the earthquake that I could not do anything because I was so scared.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When a huge earthquake such as the Kobe earthquake occurs, many buildings and houses will be destroyed. At that time, I give full scope to my imagination that I will be buried under rubble. Actually, being buried under rubble is most frightening to me because I could become weaker and weaker and finally die. I am frightened not only of being buried under rubble but also of being surrounded by fire or poisonous gas. Being surrounded by fire or poisonous gas, I could feel heat or breathe with difficulty and could know I am going to die. If an airplane crashes or a bomb explodes most people will die instantly, so people usually do not feel pain or fear. However if I am buried under rubble or surrounded by fire and poisonous gas I will feel pain or have difficulty in breathing and I will not die quickly. So it is an agonizing death filled with fear.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After the earthquake happens, many problems will occur; for example, there will be a problem of supply with goods or temporary dwellings. However, the most frightening problem is disease. After an earthquake, there are sanitary problems. If some diseases spread among the people, it will be difficult to cure the diseases because there will be almost no medical supplies and almost no food.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Anne Bradstreet :: Free Essays

Anne Bradstreet   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The poem â€Å" Upon the Burning Of Our House, July 10th, 1666† by Anne Bradstreet is a poem about her house burning down. I can sympathize with many of her feelings in this poem because I shared many of them when my house was robbed. During the beginning of the poem she talks about her belongings that she lost and the things she would never do again, then towards the end she talks about how the incident brought her closer to God. Anne Bradstreet shows how living through a struggle, such as having your house burn down can bring you closer to God.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"My pleasant things in ashes lie, And them behold no more shall I,† (108), shows the pain I felt in dealing with the loss that I suffered. I lost all of my money, my TV, and my stereo. I knew I would never get the opportunity to recover my lost items. â€Å"And to my God my heart did cry† (107), compares with the emptiness I felt when my family arrived home and saw the back door kicked in. At that point I didn’t want to continue into the house to find what had been taken from me.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The third stanza starts by saying, â€Å"And when I could no longer look, I blest His name that gave and took,† (107). After everything was over she realized that God had given her everything she had lost in the fire, and that she could once again receive those things from God. This relates to me being robbed in the fact that everything I lost was something that was not needed. This helped me to realize that material things aren’t going to make you happy, but the Love of God is. The last line of the play says, â€Å"My hope and treasure lies above.† (108). I believe that Anne Bradstreet became very spiritual after the fire and looked to God for the answer to everything.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Principles Of Implementing Duty Essay

1. Explain what it means to have a duty of care in own work role Duty of care is a requirement that a person act toward others and the public with watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person in the circumstances would. If a person’s actions do not meet this standard of care, then the acts are considered negligent, and any damages resulting may be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence 2. Explain how duty of care contributes to the safeguarding or protection of individuals Duty of care contributes to the safeguarding of individuals because as a social care worker you are responsible to; Recognise physical, emotional and psychological needs of individuals by understanding what is required for health and well-being, to observe and record ‘indicators’ of differences and changes and to show empathy and support. Anticipate danger and manage risks by carrying out assessments, avoiding hazards and carrying out health and safety checks Intervene and support in the event of illness and injury by carrying out first aid, seek help or advice, communicate with health professionals and relatives and report to appropriate authority 3. Describe potential conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights Sometimes individuals may want to do something which could be a risk to their Health and safety. As a care assistant you have a duty of care to that person and you must do all that you can to keep them safe but you also have a duty to respect the individual’s rights and choice, so you have a dilemma. It could be that the individual no longer wishes to use her walking frame,  but her care plan states that she needs it to move from place to place and you are to ensure you encourage its use. In this scenario you could carry out a risk assessment to ensure that it is managed as safely as possible. You would need to explain the risks involved to the individual and make sure they understand. You could come to a compromise, to use a stick for a while instead, to see how they managed, then monitor the situation. All this should be documented including any risk assessment carried out. If the individual still insists on walking unaided you should get them to sign to say they are aware of the risks involved. 4. Describe how to manage risks associated with conflicts or dilemmas between an individual’s rights and the duty of care There are many ways to manage risks associated with conflicts and dilemmas: Allowing individuals to explore with guidance, Making individuals aware of potential hazards and dangers, Allowing individuals to acquire life skills through learning how to cope with risky situations, Staff ignorance, Parents are a risk to staff if reported to social services. 5. Explain where to get additional support and advice about conflicts and dilemmas Colleagues the person’s family and friends GP Care professionals Advocates Union official Regulators 6. Describe how to respond to complaints listening to the complaint giving the complainant time and respect recording the information reporting to a senior member of staff accessing the Complaints Policy ensuring the complainant has access to the Complaints Policy ensuring the complainant knows what will happen next. Responding to complaints, whether made by a parent or a staff colleague, you should always keep professional and listen to what the person has to say. You should keep calm and by being respectful and apologising when necessary which helps to diffuse potential conflict. Complaints need to be resolved as quickly as possible and constructively to avoid creating a bad atmosphere for all those involved. When responding to a complaint, it is important to listen to the other person’s point of view. You should avoid making personal comments and focus on the facts throughout. Always apologise if you are wrong and explain how you will resolve the situation. 7. Explain the main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints The Complaints policy is a recorded and documented procedure that is available. The complainant is listened to and respected. The Complaints Policy is time-based and the complaint is dealt with in a documented time-frame. Complaints are normally dealt with by nominated members of staff. The procedure is clear If a member of staff or a parent wishes to make a complaint they should discuss their complaint with the setting leader first where most complaints can be resolved quickly. If the parent or member of staff is not happy with the outcome they should then put their complaint in writing to the setting leader who can then pass the details onto the owner or chairperson of a committee run setting. The setting will look into the complaint and once they have come to a conclusion the setting leader can arrange a meeting with the person who made the complaint to discuss the outcome. If the person is still not happy with the outcome they can ask for a further meeting with the setting leader and the owner or chairperson where they can also invite a representative. They can then all meet up to try and come to a conclusion.  Everything at this meeting will be noted and recorded. If the complaint can still not be resolved at this meeting then a further meeting can be made where an external mediato r is invited.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Education in the Philippines Essay

The system of instruction in the Philippines was patterned both from the bringing upal systems of Spain and the United States. However, after the liberation of the Philippines in 1946, the systems have changed radic whollyy. The discussion section of direction (or DepEd) administers the unanimous fosteringal system, which also acknowledges the allocation of specie utilized for entertain services and equipment ( such as books, give instruction chairs, etc.), recruitment of t all(prenominal)ers for all in the unexclusive eye(predicate) prep argon days in the Philippines, and the supervision and organization of the discipline curricula. The former fostering system of the Philippines is calm of 6 amicable classs of elementary fostering commencementing at the age of 6 or 7, and 4 social classs of laid-back educate pedagogics exiting at the age of 12 or 13. In this system, education is not tyrannical.However, since June 4, 2012, DepEd started to implement the untested K-12 educational system,3 which includes the spic-and-span curricula for all rails (see the section). In this system, education is flat compulsory. All normal and cloak-and-dagger schools in the Philippines must start classes from a date mandated by the Department of education (usually every depression gear Monday of June for exoteric schools only), and must end after each school completes the mandated 200-day school calendar of DepEd (usually near the third week of March to the southward week of April). The implementation of the K-12 program is phased. The world-class phase of the implementation go away start on SY 2012-2013.During this school course, universal kindergarten get out be finally offered, and willing now be a part of the compulsory education system and a brisk course for physique 1 and note 7 assimilators would be introduced. By SY 2016-2017, Grade 11/ class 5 will be introduced, and Grade 12/Year 6 by SY 2017-2018 with the phased implemen tation of the new curriculum finished by the SY 2017-2018. Students in 2nd year to 4th year mellowed school this SY 2012-2013 are not included in the program. It is only applicable to students from Kinder to 1st year naughty school which is now called Grade 7. However, during the new educational cycle, from 2016 to 2018, college enrollment could slow d ingest beca substance abuse of the enamour of the lower-year students to the new educational system.Primary EducationElementary school, manytimes called primary school or send school ( Philippine paaralang elementarya, sometimes mababang paaralan), is the first part of the educational system, and it includes the first six years of compulsory education ( swans 1-6). These builds are further grouped (informally) accordingly into primary level, which includes the first three grades (grades 1-3), and talk terms level, which includes the last three grades (grades 4-6). The elementary school education coers a smaller still wider t han the junior and senior high school because of the spiral approach educational technique. In public schools, the core/major subjects that are introduced starting grade 1 include mathematics, Filipino, and Makabayan (until grade 3, this subject is synonymous to social studies, just also incorporate determine education and the fundamentals of political science). side of meat is only introduced after the 2nd semester of grade 1. scholarship is only introduced starting grade 3. Heograpiya (geography), kasaysayan (history), and sibika (civics) (abbreviated as HEKASI), is only introduced starting grade 4 (similar also to social studies but focuses to a greater extent on the subjects earlier stated). minor(ip) subjects then include music, arts, physical education, and health (abbreviated as MAPEH). In private schools, subjects in public schools also include those of the public schools, with the lenditional subjects including computer education and HELE (stands for blank space econ omics and livelihood education term in Christian schools or in Catholic schools, religious education. International schools also have their own subjects in their own diction and culture.From grades 1-3, students will be taught exploitation their m opposite tongue, meaning the regional nomenclatures of the Philippines (also called as dialects) will be utilise in some subjects (except Filipino and English) as a medium of instruction. It may be combine as a separate subject. besides from grade 4, Filipino and English as a medium of instruction will then be used. On celestial latitude 2007, Philippine president Gloria Macapagal Arroyo announced that Spanish is to make a return as a mandatory subject in all Filipino schools starting in 2008 but it didnt come into effect.DECS bilingual Policy is for the medium of instruction to be Filipino for Filipino, Araling Panlipunan, Edukasyong Pangkatawan, Kalusugan at Musika and English for English, Science and engine room, Home Economics and Livelihood Education. condition XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Philippine formation mandates that regional dustups are the subsidiary semiofficial lyric poems in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.As a result, the style actually used in inform is often a polyglot of Filipino and English with the regional language as the foundation, or rarely the local language. Filipino is based on Tagalog, so in Tagalog areas (including Manila), Filipino is the foundational language used. Philippine regional languages are used in the provinces in the teaching of Makabayan. International English language schools use English as the foundational language. Chinese schools add two language subjects, such as Min Nan Chinese and Mandarin Chinese and may use English or Chinese as the foundational language. The constitution mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be promoted on a voluntary and facultative basis.Following on this, a few private schools mainly cateri ng to the elect include Spanish in their curriculum. Arabic is taught in Islamic schools. Until 2004, primary students traditionally sat for the National Elementary act campaign (NEAT) administered by the Department of Education, finis and Sports (DECS). It was intended as a barroom of a schools competence, and not as a predictor of student aptitude or success in indirect school. Hence, the scores obtained by students in the NEAT were not used as a basis for their admission into Secondary school. During 2004, when DECS was officially converted into the Department of Education (DepEd), and also, as a result of some reorganization, the NEAT was changed to National exploit prove (NAT) by the Department of Education (DepEd). twain the public and private elementary schools take this exam to measure a schools competency. As of 2006, only private schools have entrance examinations for Secondary school. The DepEd expects over 13.1 million elementary students to be enrolled in public elementary schools for school year 20092010. Though elementary schooling is compulsory, latest official figures show 27.82% of Filipino elementary-aged children both neer attend or never complete elementary schooling, usually collectable to the absence of any school in their area, education being offered in a language that is foreign to them, or monetary distress.In July 2009 DepEd acted to overcome the foreign language problem by ordering all elementary schools to move towards mother-tongue based culture initially. The order allows two alternative three-year bridging plans. Depending on the bridging plan adopted, the Filipino and English languages are to be phased in as the language of instruction for other subjects beginning in the third and cardinalth grades.Secondary educationPSHS Main Campus. Note the disparity amidst rural and urban education facilities in the Philippines. Secondary school in the Philippines, more commonly known as high school (Filipino paaralang seku ndarya, sometimes mataas na paaralan), consists of foursome levels largely based on the American schooling system as it was until the orgasm of the comprehensive high schools in the US in the middle of last century. The Philippine high school system has not moved much from where it was when the Philippines achieved independence from the US in 1946. It still consists of only four levels with each level partially compartmentalized, focus on a particular root or content. DepEd specifies a compulsory curriculum for all high schooling, public and private.The first year of high school has quint core subjects, Algebra I, Integrated Science, English I, Filipino I, and Philippine memorial I. Second year has Algebra II, Biology, English II, Filipino II, and Asian History. trio year has Geometry, Trigonometry, Chemistry, Filipino III, and World History and Geography. Fourth year has Calculus, Advanced Algebra, Physics, Filipino IV, Literature, and Economics. Minor subjects may include H ealth, Music, Arts, Technology and Home Economics, and Physical Education. In selective schools, various languages may be offered as electives, as well as other subjects such as computer computer programming and literary writing.Chinese schools have language and cultural electives. Preparatory schools usually add some business and accountancy courses, duration science high schools have biology, chemistry, and physics at every level. Secondary students used to sit for the National Secondary Achievement Test (NSAT), which was based on the American SAT, and was administered by DepEd.Like its primary school counterpart, NSAT was phased-out after major reorganizations in the education department. Now the National Achievement Test is administered to second year students. Higher education institutions, both public and private, administer their own College Entrance Examinations (CEE). Vocational colleges usually do not have entrance examinations, only if accepting the Form 138 record of studies from high school, and enrolment payment.Referencehttp//