Thursday, February 28, 2019
Jaquelyn Ballentine HE integrity(a) hundred one Blua 10 November 2008 sick headache headaches What ar sick headache headaches? Where do they come from? How muckle you help prevent them? Migraine headaches net non really dear be modify down to just one classification. There are many as plastered factors when classifying one.One type of migraine is a migraine without aura this is probably the to the highest degree(prenominal) common form of a migraine. These migraines fucking last anywhere mingled with 4-72 hours non-stop, which can be pretty hurtful. Typical characteristics of this are unilateral location, pulsating quality, break or severe intensity, aggravation by workaday physical exercise and association with nausea and/or photophobia(sensitivity to bright light) or phonophobia(sensitivity to sound or noise). These prognostics can very much interfere with daily life and routines.The adjacent type of a migraine is a migraine with aura, this is the second most c ommonly seen form of a migraine, and raft who suffer from these might as well suffer from migraines without aura. The symptoms of a migraine with aura usually follow the symptoms of a migraine without aura. To diagnose this type of migraine it must follow the interest criteria 1. Aura consisting of at least one of the following, but no sinew weakness or paralysis fully reversible visual symptoms (flickering lights, spots, lines, or loss of vision) fully reversible sensory symptoms (pins and needles/numbness) fully reversible dysphasia (speech disturbance) 2.Aura has at least two of the following characteristics visual symptoms affecting just one slope of the field of vision and/or sensory symptoms affecting just one side of the body, at least one aura symptom develops gradually over much(prenominal) than 5 minutes and/or polar aura symptoms occur one afterwards an some other over to a greater extent than 5 minutes, or each symptom lasts from 5-60 minutes. The signs and symp toms of a migraine spay among different people. Therefore, what is experienced in advance, during, and after a migraine cannot be on the nose defined. There are about 4 variants 1.The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache, 2. The aura, which immediately precedes the headache, 3. The cark phase, also k right onwardn as the headache phase, and 4. The postdrome. The pendrome phase prodromal symptoms occur in 40-60% of all migraine sufferers. This phase whitethorn consist of altered mood, irritability, depression or euphoria, fatigue, yawning, excessive napiness, craving for certain foods (chocolate), stiff muscles (especially in the neck), constipation or diarrhea, increased urination, and other splanchnic symptoms.These symptoms occur usually between hours and days before the headache. Next is the pain phase. The typical migraine is unilateral, throbbing, and moderate to severe and can be modify by physical activity. Though the pain may be symmetrical at the onset or start on one side and become generalized. These can last anywhere from 4-72 hours in adults and from about 1-48 hours in children. The frequency of these migraines is extremely variable, from few in an entire life eon to several times in a week. Te head pain also varies greatly in intensity.Then postdrome phase the patient may flavor tired micturate head pain, feel hung-over, gastrointestinal symptoms, mood changes, and weakness. about people feel unusually refreshed or euphoric after an attack. Where as others fell depressed. For some(a) patients a 5-6 hour nap may reduce the pain, but slight headaches may thus far occur when standing(a) or sitting quickly. Normally these symptoms will vanish after rest. Migraines are underdiagnosed and misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of migraine without aura according to the International Headache Society, can be made according to the following criteria, the 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 criteria. or more attacks, 4 hours to 3 days in duration, 2 or more of-unilateral location, pulsating quality, moderate to severe pain, aggravation by or avoidance of routine physical activity, 1 or more accompanying symptoms (nausea and/or vomiting, photophobia, phonophobia). A migraine trigger is any factor that, on exposure or withdrawal, leads to the development of an acute migraine headache. Triggers fall into different categories such(prenominal) as behavioral, environmental, infectious, dietary, chemical, or hormonal.Migraine attacks may be triggered by allergic reactions, bright lights, deafening noises, and certain odors or perfumes, physical or emotional stress, changes in sleep patterns, smoking or exposure to smoke, skipping meals, alcohol, menstrual cycle fluctuations, birth influence pills, hormone fluctuations during the menopause transition, tension headaches, foods containing tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked fish, chicken livers, figs, and some beans), MSG or nitrates like bacon hot dogs or salami, and other foods suc h as chocolate, nuts, peanut butter, avocado, banana, citrus, onions, dairy products, and fermented or picked foods.Conventional intervention usually focuses on three areas trigger avoidance, symptomatic control, and preventive drugs. Patients often find that the recommended migraine treatments are not 100% effective at preventing migraines, and sometimes may not be affective at all. Once all diagnostic information has been collected and reviewed, then the best course of action can be determined.Whether that may be drugs or simple rest the treatment varies greatly for each patient so as of right now there is no exact treatment for migraine headaches. Thorough research is being done, and many of the experiments that are being tested are on new drugs to better treat these symptoms. Throughout my family history many of my family members have bean diagnosed with migraine headaches so I have quite an base of what these patients are going through, seeing as I am one of them.These migr aine headaches are extremely painful and can take you away from normal activities such as going outside because the bright light, observation TV because of the noise, or even just studying because of the nerves and other things inside your brain that can have an affect on the migraine. some treatments have been prescribed to chronic migraine sufferers in my family, but everyone still has yet to find one that has worked efficiently. This is a problem that needs to be fixed. That is one of the main reasons that I plan to pursue my career in becoming a neurosurgeon.The fact that I am a migraine sufferer has an enormous impact on my choice of career and I am determined to go through with it. Too many people suffer everyday from migraine headaches and most people who do not suffer from these do not know the actual pain that is associated with one.Works cited Wikipedia. com http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Migraine Migraineheadaces. com- http//www. migraineheadache. com/wsym. html Emedicin ehealth. com- http//www. emedicinehealth. com/migraine_headache/article_em. htm
Disney has subsequently recognized the inaccuracy of the declaration of this program and has since then decided to restructure the projection. The author of the article had the intention to placeing the fabrications of the media and the persuasive nature of these multi-billion buck companies. More than likely the author has children of his own possibly possesses at least one Little adept digitally.The authors evidence Of Disneys claim that Little Einstein would make children more intelligent, which was completely false hence, the supporting studies behind it suggested that children 2 or less shouldnt be watching television at all. As the reader, a mother, and from a younger generation of parents all together, I deal that hillier that watch television excessively lack imagination and tend to be lazy.Educational television is effective but when we start labeling it to be the only sign of way children can learn efficiently thats where we start failing our children. altogether a f ool would believe that watching one compositors case of show would make their child some type of prodigy. If we really want our children to sport their minds flourish we need to read to them whenever we can, play outside and nurture them in every way possible. No, television program could ever create that type of educational experience.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
Majorca A Holiday DICKS Paradise? Map of Majorca Majorca in the Mediterranean Majorca is the largest of the 4 primary(prenominal) Balearic Islands, located in the Mediterranean Sea, off the east coast of Spain. It is a highly popular spend destination in the world, especi every last(predicate)y to occidental European countries. Majorcas capital city is Palma de Mallorca. Main Attractions for Tourists at Majorca newtoneasterly Majorca * Serra de Tramuntana large mountain range * Cap de Formentor Northernmost cap of Majorca Valldemossa noteworthy village related to composer, Chopin * Port de Soller Village, port North Majorca is more scenic-tourism found comp atomic number 18d to South Majorca, and features more natural attractions than artificial ones. Unlike South Majorcas westernisation, North Majorca contains intact traditional culture. Much tourism in the north resides around beaches and the natural environment. South Majorca * Cuevas de Drach subterranean cave * Es Trenc shore a beach.South Majorca is generally more westernised, Americanised, and tourer abundant. Resorts are designed to be extravagant and luxurious. Attractions are mostly man-made venues, such as casinos, iniquity clubs, cruises, brothels, etcetera That is not to say South Majorca wishs natural attractions its beaches and decorate are just less visited. General * Palma de Mallorca Majorcas capital city * Santa maria Cathedral Massive Gothic cathedral in Palma * Binissalem specifically its booze * Prostitution think what you will.Advantages/Disadvantages of tourism Advantages * Improved economy and wealth, which leads to * Improved floor, which in turn * Improves local living conditions * Improves tourist conditions, welfare, accommodation, etc. * Rejuvenation/ alimentation of historical and cultural interests * Sustainable tourism is emphasised and promoted * Employment created * Jobs and fabricate for locals Disadvantages * Gradual disintegration of native e thnic culture to cater for tourists * Locals all generally speak fluent English Destruction of natural landscape * 25 tons of sand are removed from beaches by tourists with randy bodies annually * Littering and pollution by the typically ignorant millionaire American tourist and his V8 truck(s) or the British drunk and his cardboard box * This kills the native phytology/fauna of the island * Property Inflation * Locals are replaced in their houses by abroad aristocrats * Artificial Drought * Increased consumption of water by tourists, i. e. pools, cleaning, drinking, etc. combined with few days of rain equates to a growing lack of water* Majorca becomes over reliant on the tourism industry * Tourism sector makes up 95% of its economy Conclusion Is Majorca a holiday enlightenment or not? Google and its mechanics define paradise as a place in which existence is harmonious where there is moreover peace, prosperity, and happiness. The definition for holiday paradise would therefor e be along the lines of. a holiday ecosystem where the tourism infrastructure system is harmonious, prosperous, and provides happiness to the tourist. Note that the plan of a holiday paradise comes from a tourists view (locals dont have a holiday on the spot where they live, and the environment doesnt have holidays). We can deduce from the definition of a holiday paradise that Majorca is indeed a holiday paradise. Majorca does offer a tourism infrastructure that is harmonious, and prosperous whilst providing happiness to the tourist. Majorcas tourist catering is at a sublime level, with a massive amount of services destined to be harmonious with a tourists needs.Majorcas tourism industry is also extremely prosperous, making up 95% of its economy and providing plenty of healthy frugal stimulation for the locals. Most importantly of all, the tourist is happy in Majorca, which is wherefore so many tourists go there in the first place. Majorcas abundance of fascinating tourist attra ctions, such as its culture, beaches, caves, natural landscape, historic villages, night clubs, casinos, marinas, restaurants, brothels, as well as its compliance with the definition of a holiday paradise, proves that Majorca is without doubt a tourists holiday paradise.References http//www. mallorca-info. co. uk/where-to-stay-mallorca. html, Where to stay in Mallorca, (30/7/12 5/8/12) http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Balearic_Islands, Balearic Islands (26/7/12 5/8/12) http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Majorca, Majorca (26/7/12 5/8/12) http//www. tripadvisor. co. uk/Attractions-g187462-Activities-Majorca_Balearic_Islands. html, Things to do in Majorca (1/8/12 5/8/12) http//etravel. org/places/ europium/spain/top-five-places-to-visit-in-mallorca/, Top 5 places to Visit in Mallorca (31/7/12 5/8/12) ttp//www. seemallorca. com/mallorca/guide. html, Introduction to Majorca (27/7/12 5/8/12) http//www. akademifantasia. org/atomic number 63/top-5-natural-attractions-in-majorca/, Top 5 Natural Attr actions in Majorca (2/8/12 5/8/12) http//wikitravel. org/en/Mallorca, Mallorca (26/7/12 5/8/12) http//www. majorca-mallorca. co. uk/, grateful to Majorca (27/7/12 5/8/12) http//www. geographypages. co. uk/major. htm, Majorca tourism Project(26/7/12 5/8/12)
Amanda Miragliuolo Prof. T Woodard 1101/1100-1150 11-15-10 Research paper acknowledge kills slowly Love is certainly a life learning come across. Whether if its unafraid or bad, you still learn what to do in that situation if it arises again. Usually batch tend to think with their spirits and not their minds when it comes to cope, I call it the come spell. When community fall in make jockey their lives tend to come up so much easier because they cook some cardinal to depend on and some mavin to confabulation to. However, there argon unhealthy human kinships as well that tush pretend mortals life low-down and entirely bring them down.Some of the well-nigh popular reasons why relationships get out ar because of jealousy. If you cant trust your partner in crime so there is no relationship. Another reason is due to lack of communication, which is much call for in a healthy loving relationship. impudence is one of the master(prenominal) reason why lie with fai ls. If you truly love soulfulness then you leave put them first, no matter what and neer doubt them. Being in love take backs a lot of work out and time, but in the end its worth every second. Jealousy is a big downfall in relationships. It can easily change how you thumb just nigh a person.Being jealous is basically assuming the worst about your partner and the situations that they ar in. Sometimes jealousy is caused by your own actions. If you be unfaithful to your partner you are just about likely going to forefront and be suspicious about your partners every move. Then of course that depart lead to fighting and lying. These are intimacys that you do not want to experience in a relationship, they will only if stress you out and get you upset. I recently went through a life changing relationship and I came to find out that love really does open your eyeball and make you a wiser person.My relationship with Patrick was a roller coaster, it will most definitely be an experience that I will never forget. until now though it was a very unhealthy relationship I am glad that It happened because it made me into the person I am today. Jealousy was a big factor in our relationship. Patrick would question every single thing that I did and he would usually not let me do anything without him. To me, thats not what love is. As time went on jealousy took over him and I finally opened my eyes and realized why. He was chisel on me with my best patron.The jealousy that he had on me was because of his own actions with beingness unfaithful to me. Because he was doing this he thought it would be just as easy for me to do it too. This situation really got to me because I not only lost my boyfriend but I lost my best friend as well. Relationships shouldnt be like this. It should be plain and simple, if you love somebody then be with them, and only them. Or just tire outt be with them at all. Cheating is very common in relationships and that is when the trust disappears. Emotions coming from jealousy, usually escalate into trust issues.Trust is the most grave thing in a relationship, If you dont have that then the relationship will fail. You cant say that you truly love somebody if you dont trust them. A lot of hearts are broken because of lies and cheating. Healthy relationships have total and complete trust with one another and never doubt each others honesty. Unfortunately for me, its going to take a miracle for me to trust another guy with my heart again. However, the situation with Patrick only made me a stronger person. Experiencing the crying, screaming, and the violent heart pounding situations really changed me.Now I know when to get out of my possible future relationships when and if that person hits something if they are mad, or if I actually get scared of them like I felt with Patrick. I knew I needed to leave him when furniture went move across the room, but I was thinking with my heart and not my head. The irony in this i s that my best friend Gina knew all about this and held me while I cried on her shoulder and she is the one who he cheated on me with. Trust isnt just in love relationships, its in friendships as well.As much as I miss being with my best friend everyday, I have learned and accepted that our friendship will never be the room it used to be. Love grows where trust is laid and it dies when it is betrayed. Communicating with your loved one should be nothing but a pleasure for you. Not in some cases. There are people in this world that are in relationships just for one reason, for sex. To me thats called taking advantage of someone and not cherishing what sex is really supposed to mean between devil people. Lack of communicating can also end a relationship quite fast as well.If you barely ever see or talk to your partner then what is the point in being with them? large number should enjoy their relationships and they should love spending time with their partner. A relationship takes t wo people to work and the effort has to come equally from both sides. nation need to appreciate who their with because their partner is with them to love and care them. Romantic relationships can be wonderful with the right person. A relationship with the wrong soulfulness however can lead to years of heartache, emotional damage, and even physical damage.An unhealthy relationship can damage the way we feel about love and romance for the future. They can turn what is supposed to be a loving, supporting, and understanding relationship into a hating, unfaithful, and lying one. We all know to evacuate people that appear insane or abusive and not take aim them as a dating partner. However, some individuals are better at hiding their personality and behavior abnormalities, like Patrick. Falling in love is going to take you on a wild roller coaster. With good or bad experiences, you will soon learn how to protect your heart.Usually people tend to think with their hearts and not their minds when it comes to love, I call it the love spell. Unhealthy relationships can make someones life miserable and only bring them down. Some of the most popular reasons why relationships fail are because of jealousy. Another reason is due to lack of communication, which is much needed in a healthy loving relationship. Trust is one of the main reasons why love fails. If you truly love somebody then you will never doubt them. Being in love is the greatest picture in the world, you just have to be careful who you give your heart to.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Organizational colloquy engineering science is seen as a tool that can free workers from mundane tasks and exit them to engage in activities that satisfy higher- order needs. Emphasis is placed on technological impacts on worker attitudes. (1) This approach has helped sight learn to be much of a multitasker. This approach besides helps commonwealth be commensurate to have more one on one time with deal face to face beca office it frees them up more so than they were once sufficient to do. This approach also changes the world.Another side to this is that engine room has done more and faster production than reality can. Technology has taken all over many good deals job. What used to be an assembly line of people working to put metallic element together for chairs or anything else has become a one person job making sure that the robots had put the metal together ilk it was supposed to be. There is a plant in Hopkinsville, KY that mig welds and repairs parts and pieces of appliances. With this plant on that point atomic number 18 people barely getting hired who has welding experience so that they can check what the machines do, when the machines tummy up it is up to that person to fix it.The people working in that respect are always getting laid off due to them over hiring at times. They dont need as many people as they once did because they have technology and it has stepped up and taken over the jobs of those people who got laid off. In the checkup field, there are advancements existence make every day. There are always creations of different instruments kindred the robot advancement that allows the doctor to be able to see remedy and more circumstantial cuts and less people who need to be in the persons body at one time.Now there isnt a whole table of nurses and doctors working there is only one nurse and a doctor who is controlling the robot. The nurse is who puts the instruments in the robot and the doctor moves the robot. Yes this r obot is great with being more precise but it is also cutting more people out of their jobs. These medical advancements are being made to make things faster, easier, and more reliable than several(prenominal) older doctor whose hands shake from time to time.There is also the computers advancement that is being made every day. With this computer advancement it is gravid me the opportunity to stay at home and work. I get to use the internet to do my job and anything else that I need to do than I simply use my phone. With out all of the advancements that are being made with technology in computers than I would not be able to do this job from home. The only form of human relations that will be from me in this job is the occasional times that I get on the camera and of course all of the times I talk to people on the phone. This does stop the face to face effect that was once a big role in life.Human relations approach to technology plays a major impact no matter which side you require to look at. It plays a role in both ways where it helps humans but it also hurts humans. I feel that to an older person feel at this would think that technology is taking away their livelihood because they are older and it is harder for them to find a different job. (2.) Somebody my age like me, I love the technology and how it plays out according to human relations. I feel that everyday I should learn something new so it doesnt bother me if I dont know how to do something. I feel that learning to use technology makes my life easier and faster.References(1.) Miller, K. (2012). Organizational communication approaches and processes (6th ed.). Boston, MA Wadsworth Cengage Learning.(2.) Subject. (n.d.). JSTOR An Error Occurred Setting Your drug user Cookie. JSTOR An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie. Retrieved February 19, 2013, from http//www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/20023443?uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21101834177857
When execration features in literature, there are often many ways it is dealt with. In bear You Maam by Langston Hughes, Mrs. Jones was almost robbed by a male child named Roger. Instead of calling the cops Mrs. Jones took the boy planetary mob to her house, washed, fed and gave him money to steal the sneakers that he had wanted to steal the money for. In contrast, in Roald dhals Lambs to the drubbing, bloody shame kills her hubby, Patrick Maloney, after he told her he is firing to leave her. After killing her husband, she tricks the police that she found him dead when she came home and also tricked them into eating the leg of lamb that she killed him with.While the lesson that is taught in each literature work are far different from each other, twain put down that crime is treated otherwise in many cases. However, were as Hughes illustrates the lesson that is universe taught about theft, dhal demonstrates the unexpected turn in a roughhewn crime. In both(prenomina l)(prenominal) work of literature works, Thank You Maam and Lambs to the Slaughter, crime is a common piece. Though in both literature works crime is conveyed differently. In Thank You Maam Mrs. Jones is almost robbed by a young boy Roger. But or else of calling the cops, Mrs.Jones catches him and takes him home where she taught him that stealing may non be the firmness to his problems. In contrast, in Lambs to the Slaughter, Mary Maloney kills her husband, Patrick Maloney. But instead of acquiring caught, she finds a way to cover her tracks. Though both themes were crime, its shown in different ways. In Thank You Maam the theme smoke portrayed as crime is solved by forgiveness. Mrs. Jones shows roger forgiveness which do the reader believe that roger will change his ways. In Lambs to the Slaughter the theme shows that crime can be solved by lying.Mary will not go to jail because she covered her tracks and the cops cant trace her to her husbands murder. Another example of how the theme is different by the cultivation of each story. In the turn back of Thank You Maam roger leaves Mrs. Jones house changed, speechless of what honorable happened to him. However, in Lambs to the Slaughter Mary giggles at the end of the story. This can show that both works of literature were conveyed differently end-to-end each story. Therefore, this shows how he crime is common in both works of literature through to theme is different. These two examples show how the themes are different.In both works of literature, Tank You Maam and Lambs to the Slaughter, characterization is a common influence on how each story plays out. However in each works of literature characters influence in different ways. In Thank You Maam Mrs. Jones helps roger realize what his wrong doing was. Therefore, Mrs. Jones influences roger to realize what he has been doing wrong. In contrast, in Lambs to the Slaughter Mary tricks to police into eating the lamb, the arm in Patrick murder case. This s hows that Mary influence the police to believe that she did not kill her husband.In Thank You Maam Mrs. Jones could be characterized as kind. It was unselfishness that Mrs. Jones showed Roger for him to realize his wrong doings. And yet, in Lambs to the Slaughter Mary can be characterized as manipulative. In addition, the characterization could change the seriousness of a crime. In Thank You Maam Roger is characterized as a minor. He was just a young boy who had potential of changing his ways. In Lambs to the Slaughter marry could be characterized, in this case, as a consequential openhanded. Mary was dealing with a serious crime that she had committed.This shows that even though both works of literature consist of crime, the authors illustrates a different kind of crime in each by using the characterization of each character. Roger was a kid with a chance of change, who as just committed a robbery, only in Marys case she as an adult that had committed a murder. Through character ization, these stories consist of a common trait, scarcely are conveyed differently. These two examples show how the two text are different. In conclusion, throughout both works of literature, there were common traits that consist in the story that is told by convey themselves differently.In both Thank You Maam and Lambs to the Slaughter consist of crime, but in each work they convey itself differently than the others. In Thank You Maam crime was immovable by forgiveness. In Lambs to the Slaughter crime was solved by lying. both(prenominal) works also consist of characterization that play out the story, but is used differently in each one. In Thank You Maam Mrs. Jones characterization help roger for the better. In Lambs to the Slaughter Marys characterization helped her for the bad. There were common trait but all was conveyed differently to create a different reaction of each literature works.
Monday, February 25, 2019
In consumer l block uping, e very product is evolving in the resembling wariness as character tease-toward mountainous, subject-scale consolidators replacing local, face-to-face impart. That evolution has happened in exdecadesion greenbacks. Its easy under way in machine finance, owes, and cornerstone equity. Its coming more slowly in installment lending. So consumer lending, a major part of the asset side of vernacularing, is all flowing toward national consolidators like cracking nonpareil. -RICHARD D. FAIRBANK, CEO AND CHAIRMAN, CAPITAL unrivaled FINANCIAL sensjoined Kingdom, the Hfs Group, to fort its Global Financial serfeeblenesss (GFS) subsidiary in the British securities assiduity. As of April 2005, it possessed sufficient liquidity ($21 one million million million) and great(p) ($9.2 billion)4 to enable its famous betray to hold out into new commercializes and seize the objurgate opportunities for gainful step-up. Although the confederacys acqu isition of Hibernia in barelyt 2005 provided it an chance to enclose the fast-developing Texas food grocery inserts of Houston and Dallas, it might face stiff argument from oppositewise(a) large ac book of facts companies, much(prenominal) as Citigroup and J.P. Morgan. great(p) whiz Financial confederation is a diversified till holding political party, with a 2005 marketplace prise of $18.92 billion. It provides a gamut of fiscal services through its main subsidiaries- nifty champion Bank, keen integrity FS.B. (which offers consumer and commercial lending and consumer deposit products), and superior angiotensin-converting enzyme political machine Finance Inc (COAF). From a small local bank nib issuer in 1995, the friendship has alter itself into one of the largest financial institutions in the coupled States by continuallyintroducing a steady stream of products. It features one of the most recognized brands in the industry, which it leverages along with its strategies of direct marketing, risk analysis, and information technology to grow and diversify into otherwise railway painses.Ranked 206th in the Fortune 500 list in 2005,2 the company has been gradually transforming itself from a identification machined company to an institution that provides banking and other financial services to consumers. By January 2005, it was the 31st largest deposit institution in the United States with $25.6 billion3 in inte perch-bearing deposits. corking cardinal has been on the runway of diversification from the late 1990s and has do trinity acquisitions between 2004 and 2005 Onyx acceptation flowerpot, eSmart contribute, and Hibernia National Bank. It has overly ascertaind a foot equity brokerage company in the capital of the United States matchless is the fifth largest citation account provider in the United States5 and one of the largest issuers of MasterCard and endorse credit cards. It was founded as a wholly owned subsidia ry of Virginia-based Signet Bank when Richard D. Fairbank, CEO and chairman of bang-up superstar, was invited by the bank to head its bankcard division.It began its trading operations in 1953, the same grade MasterCard International was formed. Fairbank and the former vice chairman of heavy(p) iodine, Nigel Morris, cognise that conventional banks offered loans without focusing on the customers-like analyzing their risk characteristics. They decided that by using technology and data mining techniques in the decision- making process of providing credit, the bank could clap the appropriate entertain rates more accurately and earn greater profits. In 1994, Capital One was spun off from Signet as a cosmos credit card company and established itself in McLean, Virginia. It had an initial macrocosm crack of 7,125,000 sh ares of common pedigree in the United States and Canada, at a price of $16 per share,6 which was managed by J.P. Morgan Securities Ine., Goldman, Sachs & Co. a nd Barney Ine. It is a part of the S&P 500 index, and also trades on the New York Stock Ex transport with the symbolisation COF This case was written by Susmita Nandi, under the direction of Sumit Kumar Chaudhuri, ICFAI Business trail Case Development Centre. It is intended to be used as the hindquarters for class discussion rather than to illustrateeither effective or ineffective handling of a management situation. The case was compiled from 25 print sources. 2005, ICFAI Business School Case Development Centre. No part of this issuing may be copied, stored, transmitted, reproduced, or distributed in any form or medium whatsoever without the permission of the copyright owner.Between 1994 and 2004, the company grew at an annual compound rate of 29 pct/ both in terms of its EPS and the number of customers. In 2004, its profit were $1.5 billion, and the EPS was at $6.21.8 At the end of 2004, the company and its subsidiaries held 48.6 one gazillion cardinal jillion accoun ts and $79.9 billion9 in managed loans salient, which grew by 12 share ($8.6 billion) over the previous year (see queer 1). It had 17,760 employees in borderland 2005. The bank offers 7,00010variations of its MasterCard and Visa cards, each one is customized to appeal to different customer preferences and needs by combining product features much(prenominal) as different backgrounds and colors, along with massive-ranging annual percentage rates, credit limits, fees, and rewards programs. Capital Ones set system is based on the risk level of its customers.It offers platinum and meretricious cards to its preferred customers with excellent credit history and a wide range of secured and unsecured cards to customers with throttle or poor credit history. The company also provides a range of consumer products like auto finanCing, mortgage services, credit insurance, and home-equity loans. Customizations of credit cards at Capital One are made with the birth of its Information-Ba sed Strategy (IBS), which uses sophisticated data-mining techniques to match its credit cards (its combination of interest rates, fees, rewards, and other conditions) with targeted customers based on their credit scores, credit uses, and other parameters. IBS is the fusion of one of the worlds largest databases, information arrangings, a well-trained team of analysts and statisticians, and advanced scoring models. The companys decision-making process is made efficient by bringing together marketing, credit, risk, and information technology. It selects its most profitable customers and the appropriate rate by using the rigorous testing of econometric and time series models.The credit ratings of customers is based on the Fair Isaac Corporation (FICO) scores, which are used to predict reconcilement risk by smell at several variables, including credit history. TheIBS system uses FICO scores to divide its customers into three groups of super-prime (with excellent credit history), prim e (average credit history), and sub-prime (with poor or very little credit history). Through the use of IBS, the company has been able to prove a group of students who were not included in the mailing lists of other credit card companies because these students, generally unemployed and little or no credit histories, were considered high risk.Capital Ones strategy of send credit card applications, which were tailored to the needs of these students, proved effective, as 70 percent of the applications were filled and mailed back, thus cr ingest a new market for the company. IBS has also helped Capital One avoid customers who do not pay interest charges on loans. The charge-off rate (for bad debt) of Capital One is the industrys lowest, and for 2004 was at 4.37 percent, compared to 5.32 percent in the previous year.Capital Ones GFS segment offers a portfolio of diverse products to both domestic and worldwide consumers. In the domestic market, the GFS segment includes installment lend ing, health care finance, mortgage lending services, and small business organisation lending services. GFS has been on a growth curve and in 2004, it accounted for 27 percent of Capital Ones total managed loans, which are comprised of reported loans and off- equalizer sheet securitized loans. It also accounts for 14 percent of its earnings. Its external portfolio primarily consists of credit card business in the United Kingdom and Canada, valued at $8.2 billion and $2.4 billion,12 respectively. Capital One is the United Kingdoms seventh largest credit card issuer, and among the top ten of the same in Canada. In January 2005, the company completed the formalities to spring up a British equity brokerage firm called Hfs Group to strengthen its model in the United Kingdom. Although Capital One had holdings in France and southwesterly Africa, it exited these markets due to lack of growth opportunities.Capital One generated strong earnings and loan growth again in 2004, as it has each year since its initial public offering ten years ago. The company is well positioned for continued success in 2005 in both our Us. credit card and our maturement and profitable diversification businesses. -RICHARD D. FAIRBANK, CHAIRMAN CAPITAL AND CEO, CORPORATION ONE FINANCIALCapital One grew at 30 percent14 (see Exhibit 2, on page 68) between 1994 and 2004 by issuing credit cards at attractive interest rates. Most of its business is conducted via direct mail (junk-mail solicitations), although it also markets its products through television and Internet (http//www .capitalone.com). It expanded its credit card operations in Canada, Europe, and South Africa in the late 1990s. At the same time, the company also made strategic moves toward diversifying its portfolio by entering into finance of automobiles and other motor vehicles, mortgage and home equity loans, insurance, and other consumer lending products.Although 60 percent of its total managed loans is in its credit cards busi ness (see Exhibit 3, on page 68), the company is gradually increasing its operations in other business segments. In 1998, Capital One bought Amerifee, a company that provided financing for elective surgeries such(prenominal) as orthodontic, vision, and cosmetic procedures. It became a wholly owned subsidiary of Capital One in may 2001. Amerifee is a market leader known for introducing Orthodontists lean and Dental Fee plans in 1993 and 1998, respectively. These fee plans are the largest patient payment plans in(dollars in millions, except per-share data)Reproductive Endocrinologists and infertility clinics. IS The subsidiary formally became Capital One Healthcare Finance in April 2005. Capital One soon realized that the auto financing market is double that of the creditcard market, and because it has a strong growth cap index in that segment. This market is passing fragmented and no company holds more than 20 percent16 of the market share. It provided an chance to Capital One Auto Finance Ine. (COAF) to participate innovative offers and adjoin its market share. COAF added $163.8 millionl? to the companys earnings in 2004, and has continued to be on a high growth curve. To strengthen its market position in the automobile finance segment, the company acquired ONYXAcceptance Corporation (Onyx) for $191 millionl8 (in an all capital transaction) on January 11, 2005. It also acquired InsLogic, an insurance brokerage firm, from Onyxs management team.The bargain for strengthened the Auto Finance subsidiary of Capital One and heighten its dealer relationships, coastto-coast market penetration in the United States, and its product line among the prime borrowers. Onyx is based in Foothills, California, and provides automobile loans to certain independent and right dealerships all over the United States. Onyx claims to mystify purchased and securitized $10 billionl9 in auto loans since its inception in 1993, and will add 12,000 new dealerships to Capital One s list. According to David R. Lawson, Capital Ones executive director vice president, and president of COAF, This transaction combines two strong franchises with complementary strengths.Onyxs monumental and long-standing presence with California dealerships coupled with its strong prime product offering fills out both COAFs product line and geographic footprint. Together, we watch to realize significant revenue and cost synergies20 This acquisition may make COAF the second largest auto lender in the United States. COAF has proclaimed that it has raised its car loan limit to $100,00021 (previously $75,000) for direct-toconsumer vehicle loans that gather in originated from its vanesite (http//capitaloneautofinance.com) in February 2005. This move was made in response to the growing demand for luxury cars such as Corvette by Chevrolet, so that the company can get more business from this customer segment. This extension is limited to only those with excellent credit histories (sup er-prime customers). The vice president of COAF, Brian Reed, said, Car buyers have more choices than ever today at the higher end of thecar spectrum, so weve adjusted our limit to offer consumers greater flexibilit/22 The agonistical advantage of COAF is that the loan process takes place on the Internet and requires no legacy fees.Also, its IBS system allows it to charge varying interest rates depending on the customers risk levels. In February 2005, Capital One purchased eSmartloans .com for $ clv million,23 one of the largest online providers of home equity loans mortgages in the United States. Headquartered in terrestrial Park, Kansas, the company offers a variety of products that are marketed and delivered directly to homeowners. The purchase is meant to cover Capital Ones offering of consumer loans and deepen its position in the growing US. home equity market. Larry Klane, Capital Ones executive vice president of Global Financial Services, said, eSmartloan has succeeded in b uilding a scalable technology platform, a highly skilled sales team, and an outstanding reputation for customer service and speed to close.By combining these strengths with Capital Ones powerful national brand, access to 47 million accounts, and expertise in direct marketing, we will enhance the growth of our home equity lending business24 In early March 2005, Capital One announced its decision to purchase Hibernia National Bank. Hibernia is the largest bank in Louisiana,2s with 316 branches in Louisiana and Texas, and $17.4 billion26 in deposits. It provides a wide commixture of financial products and services through its banking and non-banking subsidiaries that ranges from deposit products, small business, commercial, mortgage, private and international banking, to trust and investment management, brokerage, investment banking, and insurance. Capital One paid a 24 percent premium over Hibernias closing stock price of $26.57 as on March 4, or $33 per share,27and a total of$5.3 bi llion for the purchase.The merger is expected to cost $175 million in restructuring expenses and result in near-term synergies of$135 million.28 According to Fairbank, This acquisition is a natural extension of the diversification strategy we have been pursuing for just about time. The transaction brings together two financial companies with complementary strengths and represents a induce long-term value proposition for shareholders of both companies. Hibernias leading market share in Louisiana and its promising Texas branch expansion score not only a solid growth platform as we continue to expand, but also an additional source oflowercost funding. Additionally, we cerebrate our national brand, 48 million accounts, broad product offerings, asset contemporaries capabilities, and market expertise will drive profitable growth in branch banking 29 Capital One wanted to purchase a commercial bank with a strong management team and a large local market share. Hibernia has both these q ualities as well as the potential to expand extensively into Texas markets. Currently it has only 109 branches in Texas, but the cities of Dallas and Houston are number 2 and 3 in terms of meteoric growing markets in the metro cities, a seemingly untapped potential for capturing market share in that region.30 The main advantage of purchasing Hibernia is that Capital One gains access to a lower cost of funding at 1.38 percent against a rate of 4.24 percent.3l One third of Capital Ones funding is obtained from the deposits in its fully owned Internet bank at 4 percent, which is higher than that paid by any of its rivals.The rest of it comes from securitization, which is risky as well as costlier than its other avenues of sourcing funds. It can ontogeny ratio of funding from deposits from the previous 30 percent to 40 percent,32 to support its lending operations in the areas of credit cards, auto finance and mortgages. getting Hibernia is also expected to increase its profit margins due to decreased interest expenses and bring stability to its businesses of consumer lending and other financial products. It now has the ability to use Hibernias brick -and- mortar branches as a launching eke out to market its range of offerings in combination with its IBS techniques. The deal also provides Capital One with the opportunity to enter the debit -card market and also introduce its own home equity credit line.Early in the twenty-first century, the US. credit card industry witnessed a high level of contender and was also going through a phase of consolidation. For example, J.P. Morgan merged with follow in 2000, and the unite group merged with Bank One in July 2004 to form the second largest US. bank holding company with a combined asset base of $1 trillion33 and 19.1 percent of the total credit card market share. The US. consumer debt amount of $2.1 trillion (Federal Reserve Bank data) in January 2005 was mostly due to the top ten credit card companies, which held 8 5 percent of the market share.34 Market share of Capital One in the credit card segmentfell from 7.2 percent in 200Ys to 6.8 percent (see Exhibit 4) in 2004.Capital One was left with no innovative ideas such as being the first bank to offer automatic balance transfers, which could grab business from other banks. The rise in personal bankruptcies and the economical recession between 2001 and 2004, coupled with the saturation of the credit card market diminished growth opportunities for Capital One in that market. Thisnecessitated its diversification into other consumer lending operations through different distribution channels such as Hibernia. Capital One has been bombarding the Internet, radio, and television with its advertisement, Whats in your purse? with one of the versions featuring the famous Hollywood comedian David Spade (Appendix 1). It spent $285 million on advertisements, a total marketingexpense of $1.3 billion36 in 2004 and $5.4 million in January 2005,37 which was mo re than competitors such as American Express. In a consumer survey conducted by USA Todays weekly poll, 30 percent of the people dis like the advertisement, while 12 percent liked it a lot suggesting that it did not receive the popularity it wanted.It was opined that the advertisement expense has been eating into Capital Ones profits. Another potential hurdle for Capital One is its potentially risky source of funding from securitization. It pools together the loans it originates and invests pieces from that accrual in different securities. Because the investment is dependent on the stock market price fluctuations, this source of funding involves a great deal of doubtfulness and risks of monetary loss. It has also amassed a large portfolio of sub-prime customers as it relies on its IBS system to guide it toward greater profit margins (related to greater risk), without incurring heavy losses. ascribable to federal regulations and a great many of its customers defaulting on their lo ans, Capital One had to shift away from subprime to a greater proportion of prime and super-prime customers.This change led to smaller margins as the company offered an introductory rate of 9.9 percent to its super-prime customers vis-a-vis a rate of25.9 percent3s charged to sub-prime customers who are associated withhigh fortune of delinquency. In July 2002, the company disclosed its decision to tighten controls over its loan disbursements (mainly to sub-prime lenders) to meet the banking regulators demands, leading to a 40 percent decline39 in its shares in one day (Appendix 2). Management of Hibernias branch banking and its non-consumer lending operations, subsequently the merger is complete, might pose a challenge for Capital One because it lacks experience in those fields.The non-consumer lending portfolio consists of commercial and industrial loans (C&I) and commercial real-estate (CRE) loans. Hibernias combined portfolio of C&I and CRE is worth $4 billion,40 and its small b usiness portfolio is valued at $3.2 billion. The challenge will be to efficiently unify Hibernia into its system and strategy, which includes incorporation of its retail branch banking, and review of its business and asset integration plans. For the short term, it might need to rely on Hibernias management team in making any strategic decisions. instigate of the strategic long-term vision, as announced by the company is to expandfurther into the state of Texas, especially in Dallas and Houston, and establishnew branches there. In expanding in that direction, Capital One is likely to face stiff competition from several major players in the credit card and banking industry such as JP Morgan, Citigroup, Bank of America, and American Express.It may be difficult for Capital One to steal any business away from these giants, even with its innovative ideas and products, because the bigger players have strong presence in that region. Analyst and credit rating agencies like Fitch have warne d that Capital Ones growth depends on its ability to aggreSSively defend and maintain market positions in the states of Louisiana and Texas. Fairbanks said, Were well positioned to continue our profitable growth. Financially, weve never been stronger. Our flagship credit card business is thriving.Were successfully taking IBS, the strategy that made Capital One a winner in credit cards and auto finance, to new businesses. And, we have a powerful brand and huge customer base to fuel our growth and diversification. Our people have pulled together to make Capital One the strong, diversified company it is today. And I am confident that they will sustain our momentum as we enter our second decade as a public companyM. McNamee, 2005, Capital Ones concrete step, http//www .businessweek.com, March 11. http//wwwfortune.com. http//wwwcapitalone.com. Ibid. N. Slaughter, 2005, Capital One shells out http//wwwfoolcom, March 7 1994, Capital One financial corporation completes initial public offeri ng, http//wwwbusinesswire.com. http//wwwfortune.com. Ibid. 2005, Capital One to acquire Hibernia Corporation for $5.3 billion in stock and cash, http//biz.yahoo.com, March 6. M. McNamee, 1999, Capital One Isnt there more to life than plastic? http//wwwbusinessweek.com. http//wwwcapitalone.com. Ibid. http//wwwcapitalone.com. 2005, A capital idea, http//wwweconomist.eom, http//wwwcapitalonehealthcarefinance.com. Ibid. http//wwwcapitalone.com. Ibid. http//wwwonyxacceptance.com. http//wwwcapitalone.com. 2005, Capital One announces new online auto loanlimit of $100,000, http//wwwpwrebdireCl.com. February 25. Ibid. March 10. November 22. November 15.http//wwwmccollpartners.com . http//wwwcapitalone.com. Louisiana is one of the southern-most turn up between Texas and Mississippi. A capital idea, op. cil.states in the U.S. and is2005, Capital One purchase Hibernia for $5.3B, http//wwwcnnmoney. com, March 7 http//wwwCapitalone.com. Capital One to acquire Hibernia Corporation for $5.3 billi on in stock and cash, op. cil. Capital Ones concrete step, op. cil. A capital idea, op. cil. Ibid. 1 Locke, 2005, Bank One, JPMorgan merger ups the ante in Colorado banking game, http//wwwbizjournals.com. A capital idea, op. cil. March 25K. Maguire, 2005, Capital One rolls with the punches, http//news.yahoo.com, March 21 http//wwwcapitalone.com. M. McCarthy, 2005, Capital Ones Whats in your wallet? ads filling airwaves, http//wwwusatoday.com. March 13. S. Maranjian, 2005, How to owe $40,000 by doing nothing, http//wwwfoolcom, February 11. R. Barker, 2003, Whos minding the store at Capital One? http//wwwbusinessweek.com. March 24. 2005, Fitch places Capital One on rating watch positive Hibernia on watch negative, http//wwwbloomberg.com. March 7 http//wwwcapitalone.com.
SummaryIn the article, When to call the composition doctor by Robert N. Lle surfaceyn discusses m either techniques that be available for an face and managers to consumption in find out how to properly identify judicatureal problems, or resolve current problems at heart the organization. Llewellyns article briefly describes eight-elements in accomplishing organizational effectiveness strategic Direction, Goal Alignment, Work Process and Projects, Organizational Structure, Performance Management, Rewards, Cultural reserve Systems and Infrastructure.The article further points out that after a manager ready identified the elements for effective organizational forethought than they should apply these elements to diagnosis problems in spite of appearance the organization. Furthermore, When a fit problem is identified one must use not only simple deductive thought, but inferential thinking as well. (Llewellyn, p.79, 2002) Following this step puts counseling in charge of whe re the organization is going, strategically and systemically, and avoids the management-fad phenomenon. (Llewellyn, p.79, 2002)Effective ManagementIn week, one Professor Sowunmi asked the chassis to explain, How does effective management impact organizational success? (Main currentsgroup, February 4, 2004 DQ 2)In answer the question I stated, Effective management evict progress to an ageless impact upon the success of an organization. reference Article 3The main goals of all business are to dissemble sure that its organization and its employees perform proficiently and productively. Any go with stick out accomplish these goals if the employees are digestd with appropriate guidance, generous flexibility, and supplied with the necessary information round what the organization is trying to accomplish. Moreover, a community that is successfully managed has a vision and k this instants how to make decisions that are consistent with the communitys vision. In addition, an or ganization that has good management earth-closet make good decisions that not only improve the profits of the company, but alike give the employees a sense of pride in their company. A company that is managed successfully recognizes and appreciates its customers and will go all the way in do sure the customer is place first. (Easter-Brown, DQ 2, February 7, 2004)This statement helps support the fact that if an organization fails to properly diagnosis problems within the organization they are most believably committing a form of organizational malpractice. In other words, thinking about the many ways organizations try to transform and make themselves healthier makes it virtually impossible if they are un free to remember that prescription without diagnosis is malpractice, whether in medicine or management.On the other hand, the self-medication approach can sometimes have limited impact and can even lose headway. Without any external help or ideas, the side effects or self-trea tment can be limited management thinking, stubborn devotion to traditional and homely viewpoints. Self-medication can work well, but management must be well informed about the range of effective remedies. oppugn Article 4Take the statement made by Kevin OConnell, one of my boyfriend classmates, Effective management uses mistakes as opportunities for learning and is able to recover and promptly adapt to changes in the business climate. Ineffective management points the blame on others and never learns nor takes ownership for mistakes. (Main newsgroup DQ2, February 5, 2004)Furthermore, preferring the self-medication approach, many organizations continually engage in dissimilar processes aimed at self-change. They may purchase current management books, videos and training materials the twin of over-the-counter medications but in general, they prefer to figure things out for themselves. many an(prenominal) firms are simply more comfortable with this do it yourself approach and h ave little attraction to the idea of bringing in outsiders to deal with their change agenda. Internal task forces, special initiatives, campaigns and focused training programs can be effective forms of self-treatment. If they have a core team of bright, well-qualified essential change agents, they could make great progress. Llewellyn states, managers should first correctly diagnosis organizational problems first, then, if needed, search for a consultant that has the experience needed. (pg. 79, 2002)Changes for SHSIf I could make changes or recommendations for my own organization, they would defiantly be built around the guidelines of organizational effectiveness.Interview Article 5The Stamford Health System is currently under new management and many of the guidelines stated in Llewellyns article are exceptional steps for improving the effectiveness of my companys organizational structure, for example, Performance Management, Rewards, and Cultural Support Systems are some good sugge stions for improvement. In my recommendations for Performance Management, I would like to see a centralized scheduling streamlines access to the hospitals answers that satisfy physicians and patients, for example, a Centralized-scheduling cater of stationed in close proximity to the Admitting office, increasing their efficiency due to the heights volume of walk-in patients. The average 95 faxes and 30 calls received separately day from physicians offices will be reduce to approximately 15 proceeding to schedule. The training process for central scheduling staff is broader so that they can schedule all procedure/visit types Specific IT systems can now facilitate central scheduling by being smart about scheduling.If my organization wants to be competitive and increase their nurse retention, they need to provide major stimulus to restructure the hospital and organization. There involve to be an improvement in our internal reform strategy as well as a market alliance strategy. In o rder to be successful in the market environment of managed care and managed competition, my institution needs to expand market share through superior quality service reduce management overhead with flat structure increase productivity with self-directed teams control expenses within budget reinforce innovation and surgical process with incentives and reinfuse employees and medical staff with a sense of shared optimism about the future.Interview Article 6I believe the result will be a sweeping overhaul in organizational culture, driven by a radical shift in management philosophy and a permanent commitment to seek continuous improvements at all levels. determinationIt is evident from my evaluation and the article When to call the organization doctor by Robert N. Llewellyn that careful evaluation and diagnosis of the central problems in an organization can help avoid expensive, disruptive, and often unnecessary intervention (pg.79, 2002) Overall, through a conservative position an or ganization can develop the capability to appraise and diagnosis effective organizational skills to improve the many problems that may tog out in the organizational structure. Fundamentally, as long as the organization is willing to strive for organizational effectiveness, they have a greater chance of work out problems within the company.Interview Article 7ReferencesEaster-Brown, D. (Feb. 7, 2004). MGT 330 Main Newsgroup. How does effective management impact organizational success? Retrieved from MGT 330 Main Newsgroup on February 16, 2004Llewellyn, R.N. (Mar. 2002). When to call the organization doctor HR Magazine. Vol. 47, Iss. 3, pg. 79. Retrieved from ProQuest database on February 2, 2004.OConnell, K. (Feb. 5, 2004). MGT 330 Main Newsgroup. How does effective management impact organizational success? Retrieved from MGT 330 Main Newsgroup on February 16, 2004Sowumni, A. (2004). Overview of The Concepts of Management week I Lecture. Retrieved from MGT 330 Course Newsgroup on F ebruary 13, 2003.University of capital of Arizona (Ed.). (2002). Management Theory, Practice, and Application University of Phoenix Custom Edition e-text. Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Custom make Retrieved February 13, 2003.
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aboriginal plenty argon very fervent close to their culture and traditions and believe that they are an important part of Canadas past. Although their customs shaped Canada into a great nation, they are slowly fading into the background while competing with the French and English cultures. Such an understanding gives no consideration to the presence and role of central groups throughout history. First areas lot do non come a vindicatory amount of reckon and equality in terms of their rights for grunge and freedom. anyplace the past century there have been several brutal protests that arouse a negative, violent appearance towards all immemorials. In coiffe to carry on within society and claim land that is rightfully theirs, Natives have had to apply to planning court dates, forming petitions and writing threatening letters to the giving medication. The Canadian judicature found ways to deceive the Aboriginals and get through loopholes to avoid granting middling wishes and staying true to their agreement.It is obvious that this Aboriginal versus government battle has been going on for far too immense and it is an unfair challenge to the virtually befuddled group of minorities. Throughout Canadian history Aboriginals have been judged for the way that they assay to get recognition within society. Many citizens feel as if the Natives of Canada are violent and do not know how to control their actions. What people blend to see is that these bands are just mirroring the way they are being treated. Aboriginal groups have objected to uses of the environment by non-Aboriginal groups. One of the most publicized protests in Aboriginal-government relations was the Oka crisis in 1990. The Mohawks of Quebec erected roadblocks to stop the construction of a golf game course on disputed land, barricaded pathways to halt the movement of government vehicles, and got physical with some of the officers on patrol. After an 11 week stand-off the protestors were ar symmetryed and the Aboriginals could not retaliate.Finally, after 56 years of land disputation an agreement-in-principle was signed returning the land to the band. The government promised that the Aboriginals would receive land that was rightfully theirs and would not be disrupted again. This battle between the government and Aboriginals gives the impression that violent and inhumane behaviour is only coming from the Aboriginals, however the media fails to show the government retaliation. It is unjust to blame all of the violence on the Natives because both parties added problems to the situation.One of the premier land claim agreements that acted as a stepping stone for other land claims that followed was the James Bay Treaty. Due to the fact that the slew was controversial from the nonplus there were numerous signatories to make the treaty official. The agreement was shaped by Hydro-Quebec who wanted to ensure that they would make a profit from the Aboriginal peoples land. This land claim was negotiated under a great deal of pressure with numerous court sidereal days and lawyers present at every meeting between the groups.The Natives often thought that they were being taken benefit of and that they should not have to give up any of their land at all. The Natives wrote letters to the Department of National Defence, form joint actions with rural peoples and Aboriginal groups in the U. S. and Europe, met with European government representatives, held news conferences, and participated in demonstrations. In order to join the community together, and peacefully riot against the governments decisions, many petitions were signed by both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal members within society.The negotiation terminate after about a year due to the pressure from the Cree and Inuit to receive a just amount of benefits. In the end the Aboriginals received great care and all that was promised after the negotiation but matt-up as if they should not have h ad to work so hard to get what they deserved. well-grounded action had to be taken in order for the Natives to voice their opinions about their land. The Canadian government has always found loopholes and ways around subjects that they do not want to deal with or talk about.When they were approached by the Nisgaa way back in 1890 they brushed them off and told them that as long as they did not get in the way of development, their communities would go unharmed. Aboriginal people maintained only certain hunting and trapping rights on the land. The people of this group wanted to have a self-governed community and felt that they should have the authority to make decisions that would better their standards of living. Their first attempt at approaching the provincial government in 1927 was declined due to the fact that a law was in place prohibiting Indians to advance land claims.Finally in 1973 the Canadian government overruled the laws that were set and began to negotiate with the Fir st Nations people in 1976. Aboriginal peoples argued that their right to self-government existed because their societies historically had been organized and self-ruling. The Aboriginals were given the freedom that they wanted and were granted permission for a self-governed community however many restrictions and by-laws were put in place to keep these people under control.The Nisgaa people are now living mirthfully while still trying to work out some quirks on balancing the provincial and federal regulations with those of the self-government. The Aboriginal people of Canada have undergone a great deal of mis manipulation from the government over the past century and it should not have to continue. Although rules have been made to ensure that this group of minorities receives proper treatment from society, many are faced with the challenge of racism and segregation from the rest of Canadians.Canada is considered a bilingual country with both French and English as its official langu ages. Maybe it is time that this country realizes that it was built by some other culture too. Aboriginal awareness is not a subject that is moved(p) upon in school and it would be very helpful if the government remunerative respect to the First Nations people. Aboriginals are equal and deserve the same respect and attention that the rest of Canada receives from the government on a day to day basis.
k TEACHERS PROGRAM This is a scholarship draw that seeks to run the best and the brightest into the teaching transaction. It leave behind be backed by a multimedia campaign to promote the scholarship and uplift the profession. OBJECTIVES 1. To encourage, through a scholarship documentationed with a stipend, the best and brightest graduating high school seniors to shrink degrees in tuition, specifically majoring in English, Math, and Science. 2. To uplift the image of the teaching profession in the eyes of the public in order to make education a strong career option for our youth and their parents. 3.To help make better the attribute of teachers in the Department of teaching by producing 1000 part teachers who will join the public school system four years hence. PROJECT DETAILS Scholarships school-age childs who pass the requirements and the selection process will run into a four (4) year scholarship, tuition and fees. They mustiness(prenominal) major in English, Sci ence, or Math. In addition to the scholarship, they will receive a Php 2,000 periodic allowance for ten (10) months for each school year and a take hold stipend of Php 2,000 per semester. Teacher education institutions (TEIs) with good track memorializes of producing high quality education graduates based on the board passing) will give the scholarships. The corporate sector will provide the allowances. Multimedia Campaign The scholarship campaign will be backed with a tri-media campaign announcing the schedule in order to generate awareness and interest. Further more, the campaign intends to convince good students to rent education as a career and encourage parental, peer, and community support for that decision. General Policies and Guidelines Students 1. The selection of the scholars will be based on a competitive examination that will be given in the follower TEIs. The Center for Educational Measurement (CEM) hall administer a received test. 2. The final selection will a lso be based on other requirements (e. g. , leadership qualities, high school grades, recommendations, etc. ) These will be enumerated in the finish forms. 3. Scholars must indicate their majors upon application. Shifting of courses or majors is not permitted. 4. If a scholar chooses to drop out of the weapons platform or change course or major, he or she must immediately reimburse the school for the scholarship and PBEd for the any and all allowances already paid. 5. Scholars will be required to maintain a GPA/GWA equal of B and have no failing grade.Teacher Cadet Essay6.Upon passing the Licensure interrogation for Teachers (LET), scholars will be required to join the DepEd division in their body politic of origin. 7. Moreover, they will be required to stay in the country and get along in the public school system for five years (5) afterwards passing theLET (i. e. , two years for every scholarship year). 8. Students who choose to progress the country will be required to ref und the program. Teaching Education Institutions (TEIs) 1. TEIs interested in joining the program may contact the PBEd secretariat. 2. anteriority will be given to TEIs with a proven track record of producing high quality education graduates (based on the oard passing rates). The primary gather to the TEI is the potential codement of good high school graduates in their institutions. 3. The TEI must be willing to provide at least 5, but no more than 20, four (4) year scholarships (tuition and fees) in education. 4. The TEI will assist in the recruitment and selection of scholars identifying and recruiting valedictorians/salutatorians of national high schools, conducting examinations, collecting and submitting all application requirements, etc. 5. The TEI will assist in the monitoring of the scholars monitoring of grades, reporting of any changes in status of he scholars, etc. 6. Geographic statistical distribution of companion in crime institutions will be considered in the f inal selection of confederates. 7. The TEI will be recognized as a accessory institution whenever thinkable in all program marketing collaterals. Corporate Partners 1. Since one of the functions of the program is to focus the resources of business on key quality levers, corporations may enroll existing scholarship programs in the 1000 Teacher Program. However, they must alter their programs to the 1000 TP guidelines. 2. Scholarships must be for education and the contributions to the program must be Php 25,000 per scholar per year or four years. 3. Php 1,000 of the contribution will be used for administrative support for the program. 4. Companies (or individuals) may signify their interest to both enroll their existing scholarship program or join by contacting the 1000TP Secretariat. 5. Annual donations must be given April of every program year (beginning April 2008). PROCESS Enrollment of Existing Programs ? ? ? ? ? Corporate Partners can signify their intention to enroll exis ting programs by contacting the PBEd Secretariat or filling up the partnership forms. They can either work with their existing partner nstitution or the Secretariat will provide the school. If working with an existing partner, the corporate partner must apply the standards set by the 1000 Teachers Program. However, the corporate partner may make the final selection of scholars. The corporate partner and its partner institution are responsible for providing to PBEd their list of scholars and for monitoring their performance. If the corporate partner does not have an existing partner, they can course their contributions through the PBEd Secretariat. Student Recruitment ? ? ? ? The media campaign and all program collaterals will rovide a keep down for inquiries Interested students can call and they will be directed to the adjacent partner TEI They can then proceed to the partner TEI to inquire or apply directly. There shall be a CEM administered standard test in March. Some TEIs may also require its own test. All the needful information and application forms will also be available on a website OUR PARTNER SCHOOLS Our Partner Schools Teachers Program ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? for the 1000 ARAULLO UNIVERSITY ATENEO DE NAGA UNIVERSITY CAGAYAN DE ORO COLLEGE CARLOS C. HILADO MEMORIAL STATE COLLEGE-TALISAY CENTRO ESCOLAR UNIVERSITYDON MARIANO MARCOS MEMORIAL STATE UNIVERSITYAGOO FIRST ASIA add OF TECHNOLOGY AND HUMANITIE S (FAITH) HOLY CROSS OF DAVAO COLLEGE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION COLLEGE-LA SALLE LEYTE conventionality UNIVERSITY MARIANO MARCOS STATE UNIVERSITY-LAOAGCOLLEGE OF EDUCATION PNU AGUSAN CAMPUS PNU CADIZ CAMPUS PNU ISABELA CAMPUS PNU MAIN PNU QUEZON SORSOGON STATE COLLEGE-SORSOGON UNIVERSITY OF ST. LA SALLE UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES VISAYAS STATE UNIVERSITY XAVIER UNIVERSITY For more details please contact the PBEd Secretariat thru Phone (02) 896 9537 loc 505 and e-mail at emailprotected ph look for Ms. Renei Tan, or log on http/ /www. pbed. ph
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Summary of the suit of clothes The Charles Martin in Uganda story shows how companies can often be at adds with a manager who is managing operations in a distant land. The determine and approach pattern tendencies of a company can sometimes be interpreted untold differently by the manager on the ground. In this example, we provide go to at how Charles Martin dealt with cultural differences of Uganda and the U. S. -based Hydro Generation (HG) ships company. On the surface, the diverse stopping point could be seen as a turn off to exotic companies, barely HG, with the suspensor of Charles Martins life experiences and scholastic knowledge of the region saw an chance to grow in Uganda.But at first glance this may elicit to be difficult for HG. This was HGs first pursuit of duty in Africa ,so growing pains were almost certainly be felt. bid many African countries, Uganda has a tumultuous history. With the dictatorship of Idi Amin ruling with an weigh fist, life in Uganda w as difficult (Daniels, Radebaugh, & Sullivan, 2011). A diverse country in terms of religious sects, Christianity is the majority, though there is a large outcome of Muslims among many other religions (Daniels, Radebaugh, & Sullivan, 2011).In terms of language spoken, English is the authorised language, moreover many speak only an indigenous language such as Bantu or Nilotic (Daniels, Radebaugh, & Sullivan, 2011). In addition the history, language, and religion, HG Company had to to a fault take into consideration the tribal normalcys as well as business normalcies in Uganda . With the pending displacement of 700 villagers (Daniels, Radebaugh, & Sullivan, 2011), HG was now faced with its first major hurdle that most companies bequeath face when expanding globally.This hurdle is outperform described in how to best coexist with the cultural norms of a country. Instead of trying to simply impose the pass on of HG Company, they assembled a package that they felt would best benefit those creation displaced. HG (hydro propagation) is U. S based company. Specialist in power plants (dams). It set strongly built in the Christian culture. It has built plants 16 countries maintain an ownership an about half of them. The Uganda is its first anywhere in Africa. Because their locution involves huge amount of capitalUganda Uganada officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is bordered on the eastward by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the participatory Republic of the Congo, on the southernmostwest by Rwanda, and on the south by Tanzania. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, which is also shared by Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country including the capital Kampala.The people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern separate of the country. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962. Language Uganda is a multilingual country. xl of its living indigenous languages. Fall into three main families Bantu, Nilotic, and Central Sudanic with some other 2 languages in the Kuliak family. English, inherited from the colonial period, and Swahili, which is regionally important, are official languages. There is also a Ugandan Sign Language. all of the Bantu speaking areas of Uganda, dialect continua are very common. For example, people around Mbarara in Ankole regulate speak Nkole and people from Fort Portal in Toro District speak Tooro, but in the area between those towns one will find villages where most of the people speak a dialect which is best characterized as intermediate between Nkole and Tooro. In recognition of the closeness of four of these languages (Nkole, Tooro, Kiga, and Nyoro), and in order to facilitate defecate in them such as teaching, a stan dardized version called Runyakitara was developed around 1990.In south important Uganda, the Bantu languages of Luganda and Soga are largely interintelligible. Religion Uganda is a predominantly Christian country with a significant (about 12%) Muslim minority. The Northern and western United States Nile regions are dominated by Roman Catholics and Iganga District in the east of the country has the highest percentage of Muslims. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Uganda Constitution but religions are expected to be registered with the government and some religions considered cults are restricted.The Catholic Church, the Church of Uganda, Orthodox Church, and the Uganda Muslim Supreme Council (UMSC) are registered under the Trustees internalization Act and most other religious groups are registered yearly as Non-Government Organizations. Economy Endowed with significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, timed rainfall, and mineral deposits, it is thought that U ganda could feed the whole of Africa if it was commercially farmed. The economy of Uganda has great(p) potential, and it appeared poised for rapid scotch growth and development.However, chronic political imbalance and erratic economic management produced a record of persistent economic decline that has left Uganda among the worlds poorest and least-developed countries. The national energy needs have historically been more than domestic energy generation, though large petroleum reserves have been found in the west. After the turmoil of the Amin period, the country began a program of economic recovery in 1981 that received considerable foreign assistance. From mid-1984 onward, however, overly expansionist fiscal and monetary policies and the renewed outbreak of polite strife led to a setback in economic performance.Uganda began publish its own currency in 1966 through the Bank of Uganda. Prior to the harm of the East African Currency Board, Uganda used other countries currency. Agricultural products release nearly all of Ugandas foreign exchange earnings, with coffee alone (of which Uganda is Africas leading(a) producer) accounting for about 27% of the countrys exports in 2002. The industrial sector is universe rehabilitated to resume production of building and whirl materials, such as cement, reinforcing rods, fold up roofing sheets, and paint.Domestically produced consumer goods include plastics, soap, cork, beer, and soft drinks. Major cementum manufacturers like Tororo Cement Ltd caters to the need of building and construction material consumers across East Africa. Hydro generation HG (hydro generation) is U. S based company. Specialist in power plants (dams). It values strongly built in the Christian culture. It has built plants 16 countries kept up(p) an ownership an about half of them. The Uganda is its first anywhere in Africa.Because their construction involves huge amount of capital and because many groups opposes their construction on the evidence that they typically displace large groups of people. HG wanted to build as many local allies as possible for its Ugandan projects in order to prevent adverse publicity that could lead demonstrations and costly work stoppages. Its employees have a high degree of empowerment, being fully liable for their actions. There is no code of conduct concerning expatriates lifestyle, but its corporate culture was one that reflected the lifestyle of a prosperous international company.
So my last weekend before be deployed has finally arrived. I cherished to do roughly involvement exciting, extreme nighthing I never would stick out imagined doing before something that would occupy a lot of heart to do. Maybe regular could be called a forgetful crazy as others told me. Skydiving was something I had never by and certainly had never thought of doing until now. After doing some research online, I establish a place only an hour away from al-Qaida in Lumberton, Mississippi. In a way I was hoping there wouldnt be a place local so that could have been my alibi not to do it.Once I started infering slightly actually jumping out of a plane, I started to lower nervous and have assorted feelings. whence I realize it cant be any scarier than what I may encounter overseas maybe it could even help me deal with some things while there. So afterward frequently debating and thought a wide with unsuccessfully trying to convince a few friends to join me, I booked my trip to jump. My trip was booked for Sunday, deuce days away I still had a slight trust that virtuoso of my friends might change his mind, which didnt happen.I al coiffe had mixed feeling about my jump, and I must admit the more(prenominal) I thought about actually doing it, the more nervous I became. I began feeling jittery, and for the outgrowth clipping I was more nervous about skydiving than I was about macrocosm deployed. And still for some cause I wanted to do this, almost felt same(p) I had to. The morning of my jump arrived, and I was instructed to arrive one hour preliminary to my scheduled time. This means I had to be there at 10 a. m. , and that didnt leave me with much time to chicken out. The morning of, I began to do my usual morning routine, which consists of jogging and a simple induce for breakfast.I managed to go jogging, but once I returned home I couldnt even start to drink my shake. So with all the fervidness I decided to call my girlfriend at the time. In some way I was hoping to repel a little motivation and encouragement out of her. When she picked up the phone the first thing she said was, You touch on to jump? Then she laughed at me when I told her I was nervous, which in a way do me feel a little better. Shortly after our phone conversation began I noticed the time and realized I had to start getting ready. I knew if I didnt get showered, dressed, and get out of the house I would never make it on time.It track my mind that running late would be a better footing not to jump than chickening out and just not doing it. Shortly after that crossed my mind, I decided that was not an option. I was going to do this jump no matter what. So I began my hour and 15 minute drive. During the ride my detention and feet started sweating while I was evermore trying to concentrate on other things, but always found myself thinking about jumping out of the plane. Then I started to think about all the bad things that could go wrong. Before I realized it I was reading the sign Gold Coast Skydivers. I was here, no turning back now.So I pulled in looking for for a space to park. I became amazed and couldnt believe how many a(prenominal) the great unwashed were here. The place was so crowded I had to park in the grass. I finally found a spot and put my truck in park, turned off the ignition, and as I stepped out I could inflict hoi polloi who had already jumped. Seeing people landing with at large(p) jump outs just about gave me a certain calmness to my feelings. When I walked into the office there were people in there laughing and discussing how much fun they had during their jump.No one seemed at all nervous or shaken up as I was expecting. After I filled out all the piece of music work and signed all the release forms, I was told to wait for my instructor, so he could go over all the data I call for to chicane. Not long after I was brought into a garage like area with several other first time pinnys they started to go over everything we needed to know. They were constantly reminding us we were jumping at 14,500 feet and would be devoid falling for approximately 10 seconds before they pulled a smaller parachute, which would long-winded us down to 120 mph on the free fall.Then we would continue falling for another 60 seconds before the main parachute was pulled. All of the first timers were constantly reminded to make sure we lis tennered to our instructor who would be jumping with us. I would be jumping bicycle-built-for-two, which is a requirement for first time jumpers. A tandem jump is when you are attached to the bird-scarer of someone, our instructor in this case. They will be the ones responsible for pulling the parachute. To me, this meant I would able to sit back and enjoy the ride without worry.Before I was knew it I was being dressed in a blue jumpsuit and stepping into my harness. I was and so introduced to my instructor, handed a p crinkle of goggle and told t o intellect towards to the plane. I was walking downhill looking towards the plane and for the first time actually becoming excited about what I was about to experience. My tandem instructor boarded the plane first, and I went right behind him. The plane was peg down with two long benches allowing us to line up with our instructors. When I got put I started to look at the others who were boarding the plane.My instructor asked me, Do you know what it means to be the last one on the plane? My reaction was simple and a fast No He hence laughed and responded, Youll be the first one out I found that amusing because I did know that I was the first one on, which means I would be the last one out. Once we got seated my instructor started strapping me in and started going over what I needed to do during the jump. He told me to make unnecessary my legs tucked under him, keep my head to the left, and keep my hands on my harness until I was told otherwise.He then told me that after abo ut ten seconds he would tap me twice on my shoulder. This meant I could release my hands from the harness. He proceeded to tell me when and how he would start doing spins and others stunts. I was told to give a thumbs up if I wanted more or to close my fist if I wanted to stop. It seemed like no time had passed by, and we were in air on our way. My instructor had a band on his wrist that showed him how many feet we were at. Before I realized it we were at 13,000 feet and everyone was told to put on their goggles and get ready.This is when I began asking myself what in the hell did I get myself into? Soon as I could blink my eyes the first jumper was out the plane, then the next, and the next Now I was being scooted frontwards down the aisle. Once I arrived at the end of the bench I was instructed to crawl to the edge of the door. This means I was looking out of an open door into the blue skies. I had no time to think as we leaned forward, backwards, and then out we went. As soon a s it started I wasnt nervous anymore I was enjoying the feeling of free falling through the sky with nothing but the air underneath me.Before long I felt the two taps that I had been waiting for, and I released my arms from the harness. Now we were spinning freely in the air and I loved every second of it. I never closed my fist. From what I can remember I believe I kept both(prenominal) thumbs up the entire time. Before I knew it the parachute had been pulled, and I was being jerked upward. This is when I heard my instructor say, We got ourselves a parachute I was then told to position my harness lower on my thighs, so I could be in a sitting position. This turned out to be more comfortable to me.As we were gliding downward towards the landing zone, I began looking around and realized that this was one of the most peaceful experiences of my life. My instructor made it feel natural as he effortlessly guided us right towards the landing circle with ease. As we were getting close I could see the others who had already landed and were watching me as we started our decent. Next thing I heard was feet up and we were landing gently on the ground. For some reason I expected the landing to be more challenging and rough, but it wasnt. I was now safe and on the ground being unhooked from my instructor.At this time I could say that I had jumped out of a plane and enjoyed every second of it. Back in the office I changed out my suit and talked to the other first time jumpers for a little while. I then took the opportunity to take pictures with my instructor and get the information I needed to learn how to skydive on my own. I then said my goodbyes and headed home. I was proud of myself for what had just got accomplished and the fear I had overcome. This was truly a mind blowing, breath taking, stomach turning, and nerve pace experience. As soon as it was over a part of me was ready to jump again.
Friday, February 22, 2019
ABSTRACTIt has often been observed that fleshiness fol beginnings a socioeconomic gradient which adversely affects the poor. This paper proposes the outline of a sociological theory of fleshiness as a consequence of globalization factors, such as sweat securities industry deregulation. compel to manoeuvre longer hours and with disap decimal point levels of job-security workers in low salaried jobs suck in fewer opportunities to give the sack calories, and argon to a greater extent likely to consume fast- sustenance. This combination has led to higher levels of corpulency among the poor in countries that energise adopted neo-liberal labour mart reforms. at that place are some hu opus phenomena, which seem to be the resolving of several(prenominal) actions and individualised decisions. Yet, these phenomena are often on closer inspection as a great deal a result of companionable factors as of psychological virtuosos.In 1897, Emile Durkheim (1997) designateed th at the suicide perhaps the most personal of all decisions could be analysed with the conceptual lenses of sociology. corpulency, much like suicide, is often regarded as a personal problem result of an inability to control one(a)s desires in front of the fridge. obesity does cast off a psychological, and, indeed, a medical checkup, dimension, yet like the suicide, this festering phenomenon alike has a mixer dimension. This paper is an attempt to do the same for obesity as Emile Durkheim did to the issue of suicide to analyse it in the light of the theories of sociology.obesity and Social ScienceInterest in the social aspects of obesity is secret code brisk. Jeffrey Sobal has written extensively nearly the social and psychological consequences of obesity , including the stigmatization and discrimination of corpulent and change surface overweight individuals (Sobal 2004).Scholars with a more anthropological twist beat written about the different social perceptions of o besity, e.g. the despotic view of fatness among someindigenous peoples (Swinburne et al. 1996). In an article entitled, An anthropological Perspective on Obesity (Brown and Konner 1987), the authors found that cross cultural entropy about body mouthfuls for women reveal that over 80% of cultures for which influence preference data are available, people prefer a plump shape (cited in Sobal 2004, 383).That these ideals are embedded in their respective cultures is perhaps trounce evidenced by the small statuette Venus of Willendorf, by general archaeological consent the oldest k todayn work of art. Stone age man evidently preferred a big girl complete with threefold love-handles, someone who could both carry and nurture his offspring below the acerb conditions of the Palaeolithic world.Other examples of the cultural acceptance of large people obese Buddha statues in the Far East and rituals of prenuptial fattening in many an new(prenominal)(prenominal) cultures, where fatnes s is seen as sexually attractive ( brink 1989).That fat has often been a symbol of status is non and an anthropological observation. In the nineteenth Century, in Britain, according to Williams and Germov, a large, curved, bodycon noned fertility, wealth and high status. objet dart poor women were occupied with physical work, the voluptuous women of the middle classes were often viewed as objects of art, luxury, status, virtue and beauty (Williams and Germov 2004, 342). Fatness, they go on, was linked to emotional stability, faculty (stored energy), good wellness, and refinement to leisure (Ibid).These observations are worth bearing in mind when we discuss obesity. Obesity is to a certain extend a social construct. But obesity is also more than this. As an increase medical problem, obesity is not and a condition that shtup be or should be analysed in the light of perception and aesthetics. Obesity is also a product of biological, psychological, and social conditions.While not ignoring the enormousness of the former two factors, this paper presents an account of the latter. While correlations between obesity andsocial and economic background variables gift been reported (Flegal et al. 2000), sociological analyses crap thus far not addressed the motility of the social etiology of obesity. This paper seeks to present a first step towards remedying this.The Obesity believewhy are we so fat? asked Ameri groundwork magazine The bailiwick Geographic in a f cancel outure article in the summer of 2004 ( subject Geographic 2004). The use of the collective noun we seemed particularly warranted as modern statistics show that more than 65 percent of us (the British) are overweight. (defined as having a Body-Mass Index of 25 or above). Still more alarming 20 percent of us are clinically obese (defined as having a Body-Mass Index of 30 or above).(House of Commons Select Committee on health 2004).Britain is not alone in this. In the States the experience is even higher 30 per cent of the Americans are obese (US part of health and Social Services 2000). According to a recent study of obesity in the regular army, diet related illnesses are prudent for iv out of the ten leading causes of d tucker outh. (Bush and Williams 1999, 135).These rules matter for more than psychological and aesthetic reasons. It is estimated that more than 30.000 deaths per year in the UK are attributed to obesity or obesity related illnesses (House of Commons Select Committee on wellness 2004, 6). In the colourful words of one medical expert this is an epiphytoticthe likes of which we have not had before in chronic diseaseobesity is making human immunodeficiency virus look, economically, like a bad case of the flu (William Dietz quoted in Greitser 2000, 42). put up to this that close to ten percent of the innate NHS budget is allocated to obesity and related illnesses, and it is difficult to dispute that obesity is a major health continue as well as a major socio-political problem.Facts1 such as these more than justify the Chief health check Officers outcome that obesity is a health time bomb that needs humanity exposure (Chief health check Officer quoted in HC Select Committee on health 2004, 8).But public health is not just about diagnosing and treating conditions, it is also about understanding causes, the identification of which will enable us to latch on the appropriate prophylactic measures to combat the epidemic.Yet, there is far from intellect on what these causes are. The explanations for the obesity epidemic cited in the popular press, e.g. in The interior(a) Geographic and in new-sprung(prenominal)sweek (2004) were all biological in origin and medical in consequence.Quoting the work of medical geneticist Rudolph Leibel, The National Geographic concluded that obesity was down to genetics. Our overeating, the magazine quoted Leibel as saying, is not the wilful result of deranged upbringing. It is genes talki ng (National Geographic 2004, 62).This biochemical reductionism is not new though the underlying science has changed. As far back as 1924, the editors of the daybook of the American Medical Association editorialised that obesity was purely the result of malfunctions in normal metabolic processes (Editorial The journal of the American Medical Association 1924, 1003). blow to the impression left by features such as those in cuttingsweek, the National Geographic and the octogenarian editorial, the picture is a good deal more complex than that. This is increasingly recognised within medicine. A report from the American play of Medicine is an example of a critique of the geneticist view there has been no real change in the gene pool during this stay of increasing obesity. The root problem, therefore must lie in the unchewable social and cultural forces that promote an energy-rich diet and a sedentary life-style (Institute of Medicine 1995, 152).There is evidence to support the ver acity of the hypothesis that social and cultural forces play a role (Flegal et al. 2000, 6).What is striking about the obesity epidemic is the extent to which it reflects social class conditions. To cite but one example the Health Surveyfor England has shown that in 2001, 14 percent of women in professional groups were obese, while 28 percent of women from unskilled manual occupations were categorised as such (House of Commons Select Committee on Health 2004, 16). interchangeable examples are legion. As a study concluded the largest place of obesity occur among population groups with the highest poverty rates and the least reproduction (Drewnowski and Specter 2004, 6).This correlation between poverty and obesity is likely to be the result of underlying social factors. It is not that there is an automatic kind between poverty and obesity. This relationship is a new phenomenon, which, consequently, needs to be analysed in the light of recent social, political and economic developm ents.As Ulrich Beck has observed the struggle for ones workaday bread has lost its spur as the cardinal problem overshadowing everything elsefor many people the problems of overweight take the place of hunger (Bech 1997, 21). The interesting challenge from a sociological point of view as well as from a medical one is why.globalization and Obesity Towards a PatternIt is difficult to dispute that obesity is a social condition, which adversely affects those in low paid/ goldbrick term jobs. Need slight(prenominal) to say, obesity does have a significant biomedical component what happens inside the body after you have munched your Big macintosh obviously requires a physiological/biochemical explanation. However, it is (from a sociological and public health point of view) equally important to determine the factors which lead you to eat the Big Mac in the first place. What we endeavour to answer is the social aetiology of obesity the social causes, which lead to weight gain.The afor ementioned seek findings strongly indicate that weight problems and poverty are highly statistically correlated. As a oft-cited study saiddiet affects the health of socially disadvantaged people from cradle to grave (James, Nelson, Ralph, and Leather 1999, 1545).Of course a quote does not establish a fact, nor does a statistical association. The question is what lies behind these correlations?Some could with some justification argue that these class difference of opinions merely reflect and reconfirm the population of serious inequalities in health as reported in the Black Report in the early eighties (Working Group on Inequalities in Health 1982).What has hitherto been missing from the literary works on obesity as well as that on health in general has been more ambitious theoretical explanations linking medical conditions in this case obesity to more general sociological discourses and theoretical trends (such as modernisation and globalisation). whiz obvious yet overloo ked hypothesis is that social changes from a traditional industrial society to a globalised (deregulated) economy has created new patterns of life and work, which have had adverse effects on food consumption, exercise, and whence has contributed to the increase in the growth of the obesity epidemic.According to this hypothesis, the advent of a neo-liberal economic regime has had and continues to have profound consequences for running(a) patterns especially for those in low paid/insecure jobs. This hypothesis is, in fact, consistent with observations do by sociologists such as Anthony Giddens who have observed that one of the slipway globalisation has affected family life in Britain is by increasing the arrive of time that people spend each week at work (Giddens 2004, 62).In accession to working longer hours, individuals are increasingly working in service sector jobs (such as call centres) with provide humble opportunity for physical exercise. With flexible working hou rs, individuals are likely to eat later and more likely to consume fast-food (Dalton 2004, 95). Themedical consequence of this is that they are unlikely to burn the extra calories they consume.While no evidence of this has been make using UK figures, data from America confirm this trend Americans now spend almost half of their food dollars on food away from substructure 47 percent, or $354.4 billion in 1998 (Dalton 2004, 94) .That the hurried life-style brought about by changes in labour commercialise is in part responsible for this, is underlined by figures from the fast food chains reporting that drive-thru sales now account for more than half of their total sales (Dalton 2004, 95)2.That this has contributed to the obesity epidemic is underlined by the fact that away from home foods contain more total fat and saturated fat on a per-calorie basis than at home food (Dalton 2004, 94).As a further consequence of the changes in working patterns and the less free time available individuals are less likely to engage in sport and social leisure activities factors which have been shown to be negatively correlated with weight gain (Dalton 2004, 95).Again American figures illustrate the trend. In 1991, 46 percent of high school students and 57 percent of middle school students were enrolled in sport activities (Sallis 1993, 403). By 1999, those figures had dropped to 29 percent of high-school students and 35 percent of middle school students. On comely there is a 3 percent decrease in the function of kids who take part in sporting activities on a daily basis (CDC 2000).Viewed in this light is perhaps not surprising that the countries in the forefront of globalisation (especially labour market deregulation) are also the countries with the highest relative incidence of obesity (See table One). Conversely, countries with less globalised economies, have had lower sometimes much lower levels of obesity.A few examples will suffice. In Sweden a democracy that has not followed the neo-liberal reform agenda the number of overweight people is 39 per cent(the same figure as France another country that has resisted neo-liberal reforms). The figure for Norway another affluent society in the same category is even lower 25 percent (www.iotf.org).That labour market dergeulation goes hand in hand with obesity, seems to be confirmed when we contrast the obesity figures from globalised countries with similar figures from less globalised economies (as measured by the Heritage creation Index of stinting license). The Pearsons Correlation Coefficient between this measure of globalisation (admittedly a gross deputy) and obesity rate is a Pearsons R of -.71. In other words, the less globalised the economy, the lower the number of obese people. While this correlation is not all conclusive and only significant at 0.37 (two-tailed), it does suggest the existence of a causal link between obesity and globalisation.Table One Index of Economic Freedom and Obesity RatesCountryIndex of Economic Freedom %ObeseAustralia1.8820France2.63 8Finland1.9513Netherlands2.04 8Norway2.25 7United Kingdom1.7917USA1.8525Sources The Heritage Foundation and www.iuns.com (accessed 14 August 2004)While governments of the most globalised economies such as Australia, the UK and the USA have gone to great lengths in their efforts to deregulate the economies and give the market a stronger role, other countries especially those with strong corporatist traditions (See Lijphart 1999) have adopted a different approach to globalisation.In the Netherlands the government, trade unions, and employers associations have negotiated responses to globalisation, which have prevented the growing inequalities and levels of job-insecurity associated with globalisation inAustralia (Bessant and Watts 2002, 306)., Britain and the USA (Giddens 2001, 69).Consequently, the Dutch workers are not under the same pressures as their British and American counterparts in having to see k low paid/short term employment, with all the consequent negative implications on food consumption and lack of time for physical exercise (Freedman 2000).The difference between these two pure types of welfare capitalism is not merely of importance for the reasons identified above (food intake with little opportunity to burn calories). There is also evidence to suggest that the Dutch model is more conducive to the formation of social capital, which in turn is negatively correlated with levels of obesity (Putnam 2000, 264).Further globalisation is more than just labour market deregulation. Global liberalisation of trade under the WTO and liberalisation of the market for broadcasting are other factors to be taken into account. globalisation is a mix of contingent factors which when combined create social developments.One of the consequences of globalisation is a society, in which consumers both enjoy the benefits of cheap food from approximately the globe, while at the same time, are being subjected to advertisements from multinational food and beverage producers, such as McDonalds, Pepsi, Burger King, Coca Cola, and others.The level of this influence can hardly be exaggerated in one year McDonald washed-out in excess of 1 billion US-dollars on advertisement for kids (Brownell and Horgen 2003, 60).Globalisation has profoundly affected capitalist democracies, yet not all countries have responded by deregulating labour markets and unleashing market forces. In some cases, countries have (successfully) attempted to regulate the forces of globalisation, e.g. through restrictions on media advertising (especially on TV). In the Netherlands the public broadcastersare not allowed to interrupt programmes aimed at the Under-12 year olds with advertisements. Similar restrictions have been introduced in Sweden and Norway (www.childrensprogrammes.org).That such restrictions have been introduced in small countries with relatively open economies is an indication perhaps even a proof that the effects of globalisation are not inevitable that political intervention has not been rendered impossible by globalisationConclusionThere is no question that the rates of obesity and Type 2 Diabetes follow a socioeconomic gradient, such that the burden of disease falls disproportionally on people with hold resources, racial-ethnic minorities, and the poor. Thus wrote two dieticians recently (Drewnowski and Specter 2004, 6). Previously, scholarly studies in the social aetiology of obesity have stopped short of growing these statistically based conclusions into a more general theoretical sociological framework.In this paper a case has been made for the view that obesity is at least in part a consequence of the recent political and economic developments commonly known as globalisation.Globalisation has led some governments (e.g. in the USA, Britain and Australia) to enact and implement labour market reforms (flexible job-markets with less job-security). One o f the consequences of this development has been pressures on families and individuals in low paid/temporary jobs. Through this globalisation has created conditions, which are conducive to over-consumption of high-energy foods.Forced to work longer hours, individuals have less time to prepare meals opting preferably for pre-prepared fast food with a high fat content.In addition to this development, the availability of cheap food from around the globe coupled with advertising from multinationals has resulted in new pressures which have led to a growth in the consumption of energy-rich foodamong the poor.Thus a combination of social factors have contributed to the fast growing epidemic of obesity which is eroding our health budgets, toilsome self-esteem and creating premature deaths.ReferencesAmerican Medical Association (1924), What Causes Obesity, Editorial, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1924, 83, 1003.Ulrich Beck, Risk Society. Towards a New Modernity, London, Sage, 1997, p. 21.Bessant, Judith and Watts, Rob (2002) Sociology Australia. Crows Nest, NSW Allen&UnwinP.J. 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