Sunday, January 26, 2020

FDI in International Politics

FDI in International Politics Literature Review FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) is one of the important areas in the study of International Political Economy (IPE) today. The emergence of MNCs (Multinational Corporation) in the beginning of 1960s has led to the growing research about the impacts of MNCs on nation-state. As MNCs become not only significant in numbers but also gain significant power over time, many scholars started to assess to what extent MNCs contribute to the national welfare and to what extent they undermine the national interest. Before going in-depth into the analysis of the existing research, I will firstly examine the definitions of FDI and MNC. Scholar Stephen Cohen described FDI and MNC as two inextricably intertwined concept but not perfect synonyms. In other words, they are both referring to the same phenomenon of international business operations, yet present different facets of the phenomenon. The definition of FDI in the paper will follow the widely accepted definition according to OECD, which is an i nternational venture made by an investor in an economy to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise residing in another economy[1]. Lasting interest in this framework indicates that the investor holds a significant degree of long-term influence in the management of the direct investment enterprise, which normally holds 10 percent of voting stock. On the other hand, the paper refers MNC as a business enterprise that engages in FDI and upholds value-added holdings in more than one country[2]. In the following section I will be reviewing the existing literature that are related to my research question of whether Australia should relax its investment regime. I will be dividing the existing literature into two camps, conservative camp and liberal camp. Specifically, conservative camp argues that the potential level of threat to national interest is greater than the benefits of the increased investment, which indicating a strict or tighten investment regime is more suitable for the country. Liberal camp advocates that the benefits of the increased investment is greater than the level of threat to the nation-state, which implying a loosen investment regime is more preferred for the country. Conservative camp is usually dominated by scholars in the field of political science. With the rising market power and the growing importance of multinationals in the global economy, more and more scholars and politicians have viewed the increasing danger of FDI have on the nation-state. Some scholars even assert that FDI is already transforming the nature of international economic and political affairs in manners that diminish the nation-state and integrate national economies. A famous scholar of international political economy, Susan Strange expresses that the state sovereignty is under attack, by stating that cross-border commercial activities has become more powerful than the states to whom ultimate political authority over society and economy is supposed to belong. Where states were once the masters of markets, now it is the markets which, on many crucial issues, are the master over the governments of states[3]. Strange attributes the cause of the diminishing state power to the structural changes in the world economy, specifically the technological and financial changes as well as the accelerated integration of national economies into a single global marketplace, which the overall changes have shifted in favour of multinational. That being said, Strange is still considered not as radical compared to other conservatives, as she still views MNCs as a parallel authority. Unlike Susan Strange, Scholar Robert Walters is a more radical conservative. He illustrates that there are two views of MNCs[4]. First view is where MNC is an independent actors operating in the interstices of state-to-state relations, and it challenges the sovereignty of all states. He further asserts that good regulation governing these MNCs could benefit the global economy. The second view is where MNC is viewed as instrument serving the home countrys foreign policy, which can in turn allowing the home country to penetrate and secure effective economic and political dominance over the world such as the United States. However, at the end of the day, he still stresses that no matter what view the MNCs takes, they both have a tendency to threaten the capacity of states to pursue effective their national economic and political goals through such standard devices as fiscal policy, monetary policy, investment controls, and so forth. Somewhat similar to the two views of MNCs introduced by Robert Walters, Joseph Nye demonstrates three ways of how MNCs influence the world politics. The first is the direct role of MNCs, in which the MNCs are affecting the governments and the politics of other countries by dealing with them directly. The second way is the unintended direct role of MNCs, where MNCs are used by the home government as an instrument in the host countries. The third is the indirect roles of MNCs in setting the agenda for their home government. With the growing influence of MNCs have on world politics, Joseph Nye views that even though States will not cease to exist, transnational production unites will over a large part of their role in proving for the citizens welfare and will even claim a proportionate share of their loyalties[5]. Given that Australian investment regime prevents any foreign governments that have a free hand to pursue political agendas in Australia, some scholars question the pure commercial motives of Chinese ODI and refer these investments as instruments utilised by the Beijing government to serve its political goal. Scholar Mark Wang points out that Chinas investment overseas has been one element of a broader process of restructuring and political activities in which the government plays an important role.[6] Similarly, Tomasic and Xiong [7]who examines the Chinese SOE in Australia claim that SOEs have served as national champions working for the advancement of Chinas national interests. For that reason, they claim that Chinese SOEs should not be treated in the same way as privately controlled foreign companies. They further conclude that the Australian regulation governing Chinese SOE in Australia is seen as reasonable and not dismissed as populist. There are several issues worth nothing existing in the literature of this camp. Most radical conservative scholarly articles are written a long time ago, given the political uncertainty at the time particularly after the World War two, they might overestimate the power of MNCs and underestimate the role of government. Another issue of this camp is that almost none of the underlying rationale is based on hard empirical data. Finally, most of the academic debate also suffers from the tendency to view the situation as a zero-sum game. In contrast to conservative camp, liberal camp sees MNCs will not challenge the role of the government and national sovereignty. This school of thought upholds the superior role of the government. As scholar David Fieldhouse argues[8], the nation-state is still the only universally recognized way of organizing political life. In other words, he believes that the host government still has the upper hand and can set the rules of engagement. A government has the jurisdiction and is able to force a foreign firm to leave by tightening regulatory controls, raising the cost of doing business, or threatening to arrest executives. Even a weak government has the authority to physically block the entrance of a foreign subsidiary that is not welcomed. Despite that the states have lost bits and pieces of their sovereignty, this erosion of sovereignty does not signify that they have all become dysfunctional or obsolete[9]. Scholars including Bergsten note that the existence of MNCs should not be viewed as engaging in a zero-sum game of domination with governments. To the extent that MNCs serve as means for governments to exert and enhance national power, they are sovereignty affirming rather than sovereignty diminishing[10]. Scholar Gilpin also believes that nation-state remains the predominant actor in international economic affairs. He criticises the critic for being exaggerate the veils of the MNCs and their role in the world economy. Despite that some MNCs do exploit and damage the world, the MNC as an institutions is beneficial to many people worldwide. He asserts MNCs is a major source of capital and technology for economic development[11]. The common issues of these two camps: lack of looking at the motives of Chinas ODI, lack of looking at the new trend of Chinas ODI in developed countries (resource rich to real estate) Additional references Rosen and Hanemann, Chinas Changing Outbound Foreign Direct Investment Profile, pp. 20-21. Pamlin and Long, Re-think Chinas Outward Investment Flows, pp. 25-26; and Schà ¼ler-Zhou and Schà ¼ller, The Internationalization of Chinese Companies. Wu, The Globalization of Corporate China, p. 19; Pamlin and Baijin, Re-think Chinas Outward Investment Flows, pp. 19-20; and Rosen and Hanemann, Chinas Changing Outbound Foreign Direct Investment Profile, p. 20. Hong and Sun, Dynamics of Internationalization and Outward Investment, p. 622; Deng, Investing for Strategic Resources and Its Rationale, pp. 74-75; and Yip, Foreign Acquisitions by Chinese Firms, p. 216. Hong and Sun, Dynamics of Internationalization and Outward Investment, p. 623. [1] OECD. (2008). OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment. Retrieved from [2] Shah, F. A. (2012). A Critical Review of Multinational Companies, Their Structures and Strategies and Their Link with International Human Resource Management. IOSR Journal of Business and Management, 3(5), 28-37. [3] Susan Strange, The Retreat of the State-The Diffusion of Power in the World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 4 [4] Walters, R. S. (1972). International Organizations and the Multinational Corporation: An Overview and Observations. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 403(1), 127-138. [5] Nye, J. S. (1974). Multinational Corporations in World Politics. Foreign Affairs, 53(1), 153. [6] Wang, M. Y. (2002). The Motivations behind Chinas Government-Initiated Industrial Investments Overseas. Pacific Affairs, 75(2), 187. [7] Xiong, Ping and Tomasic, Roman, Chinese State-Owned Enterprises in Australia Legal and Investment Challenges (2015). Australian Journal of Corporate Law, Vol. 30, 2015. [8] David Fieldhouse, A New Imperial System? The Role of the Multinational Corporations Reconsidered, in Jeffry [sic] A. Frieden and David A. Lake, eds., International Political Economy (Boston: Bedford/St. Martins, 2000), p. 178. [9] Arie Kacowicz, Regionalization, Globalization, and Nationalism, Kellogg Institute for International Studies, Working Paper Series no. 262, December 1998, pp. 39-40, available online at; accessed June 2005. [10] C. Fred Bergsten, Thomas Horst, and Theodore Moran, American Multinationals and American Interests (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 1978), p. 333. [11] Robert Gilpin, U.S. Power and the Multinational Corporation (New York: Basic Books, 1975), pp. 139, 161.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Investigation: Body Temperature Regulation

Investigation: Body temperature regulation Guiding question: To what point does fur determine an arctic foxes wellbeing in the wild and how much protection against extreme temperatures does it really offer. Introduction: In this experiment I will be attempting to justify my findings that I have gathered over the course of a few different experiments. What I have been gathering information over is the suitability of an arctic foxes fur coat. I have gone about finding this out by simulating a model of an arctic foxes fur coat through many trying and stressful conditions. The way I did so was by firstly dividing the experiments into three different steps. The first step entailed me attempting to put my model arctic fox in sub zero temperatures, as it would be in real life. What I did however was to put two models in the fridge. The first was a simple test tube covered with cotton, while the second had a space of cool air between the fur and the test tube simulating the space that would be created when a fox puffs out its fur almost like when we get goose pimples. The second experiment was designed to signal whether it changes anything to the temperature of my two test tubes if there is wind or not. I also did that same experiment of wind with my test tubes both drenched with water, again this would simulate a real life situation such as rain and wind or even snow and wind. Lastly I decided to put my test tubes (or arctic foxes! ) at normal room temperature to determine how much the tests really did influence the temperatures, in this way I could see what exactly was going on in terms of the cooling curve. Hypothesis: I expect the following experiment to give me a rough enough idea of arctic foxes protective measures and to help me better understand the full extent of their heat retaining abilities. I expect that my experiment has a great deal of flaws yet I also believe that there will be enough raw data to accurately determine a positive result. A positive result would be one that accurately gives me an idea of how to answer my guiding question. If I were to be more specific I would say that in my opinion the test tube with the hot air trapped between the cotton and the actual test tube will make no difference over the one with only cotton around it. I base this upon the theory that the air temperature between the test tube and the cotton will quickly loose any of its heat and will become redundant. I can prove this by continuing with the experiments I have designed to determine just that. Lastly I also believe that when I will confront the results of my two experiments, the one with only the fan and the other with the fan and the wet cotton I will find that the later will be much more susceptible to the cold and its temperature will decrease much more, due to the water that will constrict its ability to retain heat. Apparatus: * Two test tubes of equal dimensions * Cotton wool to simulate fur on an arctic fox * Pieces of wood that create a space of air between the tube and the wool * Timer to accurately give me a time span for which to conduct my experiment * Fan to simulate wind * Thermometer to place within test tube which will accurately calculate the temperature of the water held inside it. * Kettle to boil the water before placing it inside the test tube * Selotape to keep the cotton in place Fridge to simulate the sub zero temperatures that arctic foxes must live through Evaluation of apparatus: I think that the apparatus that I used are all extremely good and effective with a few key exceptions. Firstly the cotton is not quite the same material as the fur that an arctic fox uses, meaning that the experiment will not be true to real life. It will only give me a rough idea of the concepts of heat regulation within this particular species of animal, but that will be enough to answer the guid ing question. Another piece of apparatus that does not match exactly my requirements is the fan seeing as it only produces a certain amount of wind and in only one direction meaning that I will have to continually turn my test tube in order to keep the experiment fair and equal. Experiment one: In this experiment I will be placing my test tube’s at room temperature in order to determine before starting the other experiments what the cooling curve would be without it being put through any abnormal conditions. As I can see through the graphs above the temperature decreases very slowly from the initial 70 degree starting temperature. What happens is that test tube one and two slowly start to disconnect form each other, seeing as test tube one retains heat more effectively. I will now see whether the results will be drastically different with my other experiments. I have also noticed that the test tube 1 has a greater heat retaining ability that may well be due to the layer of air held between it and the test tube. To further prove this theory I will have to continue with my other experiments. Experiment two: In this experiment I have put my two test tubes inside the fridge in order to simulate the sub zero air conditions. In my hypothesis I said that I thought there would be no difference between test tube one and two. In the first experiment it was proved otherwise, yet in the following experiment there will be a greater temperature change so the differences in temperature will become more evident as time goes on. As you can see in the following graph there is a much more significant difference between test tube one and test tube two. This shows that so far the space of hot air between the cotton wool and the test tube is beginning to work much more effectively. This is completely against what I initially said in my hypothesis, where I clearly stated I thought It would make no difference. However if you look carefully at this gathering of information you are able to see that the results start to separate from each other much more significantly than the first experiment this shows that the more drastic the temperature the more it helps to have that layer of hot air to protect and keep the ‘arctic fox’ warm. Experiment three: This is the most important experiment, in my opinion to determine to what extent an arctic foxes fur helps keep out the cold. This is because I will be keeping the test tubes at room temperature while placing a fan in front of it to simulate wind and the cold wind that comes with that. It is not as drastic as my previous experiment but it is just as important. I expect to see results that are of a higher temperature than the last experiment, but I also expect the difference between the two test tubes to increase seeing as test tube 2 is much better equipt against this kind of heat and temperature difference.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Essay Writing Sample Topics - Is it a Scam?

Essay Writing Sample Topics - Is it a Scam? New Step by Step Roadmap for Essay Writing Sample Topics A seasoned professional will make an error-free assignment very quickly and can help you boost your grades. If writing an essay seems like an intimidating experience, then learning how to break the process down into lots of easy steps will provide you with the confidence you will need to make an interesting, top quality piece of work. You should not be concerned about struggling with the various assignments that have very limited moment. A great start is a guarantee of succeeding. Include the class name and number that's regarding the essay. You can avail numerous search engines such as google for any of a person's essay subject. You'll be supplied with a list of media essay titles that may be accomplished very fast. There are several websites available where you're able to essay download free on an array of topics. You need to use a wide selection of vocabulary. Understand your topic well and make sure that you explain your points in easy and understandable language. Some topics are plain and just require explaining its uni-directional facets. You might also lack enough knowledge on the subject, or you aren't good in using English language for writing essays. The Essay Writing Sample Topics Game The blank screen or paper facing you while drafting essay has become the most difficult portion of the procedure. You are able to write the paper from many of distinct angles, but so long as readers get to understand the man and understand the dominant impression, you've accomplished your target. The introduction portion of the essay is followed by the body section, that is the major part of the paper. When you're writing the cover page you must adhere to a few standard formats and include some basic capabilities. What Is So Fascinating About Essay Writing Sample Topics? If you still doubt whe ther you are able to deal with this kind of assignment for a definition essay alone, we're content to inform you that there's a superb solution! Don't worry, help from a web-based essay writing service is readily available now. Things to know prior to writing an essay A great essay will need a lot of preparation, thought and a good quantity of research. The ideal essay writing solutions can be your reliable resource for research and authentic essay and can assist you with affordable rates. Often students attempt to steer clear of essay writing in their regular study program. All essays will have a certain topic that's either one you choose or one which is provided for you. High school essays are structured very similarly irrespective of the topic and very good essay structure will let you write a very clear essay that flows from 1 paragraph to the next. A decent academic essay should include a thesis statement. The Little-Known Secrets to Essay Writing Sample Topics Whenever you choose to ask us for expert aid, don't hesitate to speak to our support managers. Make sure you're selecting a genuine essay writing service instead of just some bogus content mill. Many trustworthy writing services are eager to provide essay help. Using paid services that provide essay writing help has been an increasing trend in recent decades. New Step by Step Roadmap for Essay Writing Sample Topics In the majority of cases, you're going to be writing an interview essay to illustrat e a dominant impression of the individual you're interviewing. Your own opinion If you merely paraphrase different people's ideas, then your essay will wind up being boring and your audience is likely to drop interest. It's not highly recommended that you write whenever your mind isn't settled. You will be provided time to read the questions before you listen. Even a quick plan is much better than no plan whatsoever, and will begin to provide the writer a feeling that completing an essay on such topic is well in their grasp. Don't be worried about a few of them being rather abstract their principal aim is to reveal to you the basic principles that you'll have the ability to transfer to your own writing. The collection of the topic ought to be based on your interest because it's essential that you maintain your interest throughout the technology essays writing. Obviously, you can pick any other topic. Also, make certain that you aren't using more than 1 hook in the essay since it is only going to make it even more crowded and confusing. The entire goal of essays is to analyse your ideas and judgments about a certain topic and how well you're in a position to structure them in the shape of words on paper. There are different kinds of essays and largely depend on just what the writer would like to convey. As you're writing a formal essa y, then you must ensure the tone of your formal essay is likewise very formal because your intended audience would become your teacher and classmates, you might have to demonstrate that you're professional in writing formal essays.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Mary Ann Bickerdyke, Calico Colonel of the Civil War

Mary Ann Bickerdyke was known for her nursing service during Civil War, including setting up hospitals, winning confidence of generals. She lived from  July 19, 1817 to November 8, 1901. She was known as Mother Bickerdyke or the Calico Colonel, and her full name was  Mary Ann Ball Bickerdyke. Mary Ann Bickerdyke Biography Mary Ann Ball was born in 1817 in Ohio.   Her father, Hiram Ball, and mother, Anne Rodgers Ball, were farmers.   Anne Balls mother had been married before and brought children to her marriage to Hiram Ball. Anne died when Mary Ann Ball was only a year old,. Mary Ann was sent with her sister and her mother’s older two children to live with their maternal grandparents, also in Ohio, while her father remarried.   When the grandparents died, an uncle, Henry Rodgers, cared for the children for a time. We don’t know much about Mary Ann’s early years.   Some sources claim she attended Oberlin College and was part of the Underground Railroad, but there’s no historical evidence for those events. Marriage Mary Ann Ball married Robert Bickerdyke in April 1847. The couple lived in Cincinnati, where Mary Ann may have helped with nursing during the 1849 cholera epidemic.   They had two sons.   Robert struggled with ill health as they moved to Iowa and then to Galesburg, Illinois. He died in 1859.   Now widowed, Mary Ann Bickerdyke then had to work to support herself and her children. She worked in domestic service and did some work as a nurse. She was part of the Congregational Church in Galesburg where the minister was Edward Beecher, son of the famous minister Lyman Beecher, and a brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe and Catherine Beecher, half-brother of Isabella Beecher Hooker.   Civil War Service When the Civil War began in 1861, the Rev. Beecher called attention to the sad state of soldiers who were stationed in Cairo, Illinois.   Mary Ann Bickerdyke decided to take action, probably based on her experience in nursing.  Ã‚   She put her sons under the care of others, then went to Cairo with medical supplies that had been donated.   On arrival in Cairo, she took charge of sanitary conditions and nursing at the encampment, though women were not supposed to be there without prior permission.   When a hospital building was finally constructed, she was appointed matron. After her success in Cairo, though still without any formal permission to do her work, she went with Mary Safford, who had also been at Cairo, to follow the army as it moved south.   She nursed the wounded and sick among the soldiers at the battle of Shiloh. Elizabeth Porter, representing the Sanitary Commission, was impressed by Bickerdyke’s work, and arranged for an appointment as a â€Å"Sanitary field agent.† This position also brought in a monthly fee. General Ulysses S Grant developed a trust for Bickerdyke, and saw to it that she had a pass to be in the camps.   She followed Grant’s army to Corinth, Memphis, then to Vicksburg, nursing at each battle. Accompanying Sherman At Vicksburg, Bickerdyke decided to join the army of William Tecumsah Sherman as it began a march south, first to Chattanooga, then on Sherman’s infamous march through Georgia.   Sherman allowed Elizabeth Porter and Mary Ann Bickerdyke to accompany the army, but when the army reached Atlanta, Sherman sent Bickerdyke back to the north. Sherman recalled Bickerdyke, who had gone to New York, when his army moved towards Savannah.   He arranged for her passage back to the front.   On her way back to Sherman’s army, Bickerdyke stopped for a while to help with Union prisoners who’d been recently released from the Confederate prisoner of war camp at Andersonville.   She finally connected back with Sherman and his men in North Carolina. Bickerdyke remained in her volunteer post – though with some recognition from the Sanitary Commission – until the very end of the war, in 1866, staying as long as there were soldiers still stationed. After the Civil War Mary Ann Bickerdyke tried several jobs after leaving army service. She ran a hotel with her sons, but when she got sick, they sent her to San Francisco.   There she helped advocate for pensions for the veterans.   She was hired at the mint in San Francisco.   She also attended reunions of the Grand Army of the Republic, where her service was recognized and celebrated. Bickerdyke died in Kansas in 1901.   In 1906, the town of Galesburg, from which she’d left to go to the war, honored her with a stature. While some of the nurses in the Civil War were organized by religious orders or under Dorothea Dix’ command, Mary Ann Bickerdyke represents another kind of nurse: a volunteer who was not responsible to any supervisor, and who often interjected themselves into camps where women were forbidden to go.