Tuesday, December 24, 2019
Anthropology is a generic term which originates from the Greek word anthropo logos which means the Ã¢â¬Å"study of man.Ã¢â¬ Anthropology is the most comprehensive among the social sciences, covering every aspect of human behaviour, past, present and the future (Blanchard 1995:2). The anthropology of sports serves as a unique social scientific approach to understand and analyse sports alongside the practical application of results to real problems (Blanchard 1995:23) and like all other social sciences, operates within Ã¢â¬Å"paradigms, models, and theoriesÃ¢â¬ to provide a better understanding of the study of sports (Coakley and Dunning 2000:150). The anthropological approach to the ways research methods, can utilise the understanding that, sports constitutes human action which highlight social issues in ways no other discipline can (Besnier and Brownell 2012; Coakley and Dunning 2000:151; Blanchard 1995:2). For example, the anthropology of sports focuses on the distinctive fram ework within which one may address specialised problems like gender and sports, sports and ritual, and violence in human society among others (Blanchard 1995:23). The anthropology of sports is primarily a behavioral science thus closely related to cultural anthropology (Blanchard 1995:23) and tied to the knowledge that sports is an institution and a component of culture (Coakley and Dunning 2000:151). The anthropological study of sports can add to the existing sociological and historical knowledge in sports field andShow MoreRelatedCultural Study Of Anthropology Of Sports1493 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesoverview of anthropology of sports. The second heading covers the ethnographic background. The third heading is of this chapter sheds light on autoethnographic study. The fourth heading is habitus, with a sub-heading thus: the socio-cultural study of the body. The fifth heading is on nationalisation theories. The sixth heading is on globalisation theory. The seventh heading is on feminist theory. Finally the eighth heading will be on volleyball. There are several approaches to the study of sports. HoweverRead MoreSports As An Element Of Culture1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesChapter One Introduction Sports have different meanings for different people and across societies (Laker 2001:4) and the way one engages in sports is influenced by the cultural or ethnic group to which one belongs (Sever 2005:4). Although the rules of sport may stay constant, meanings diverge (Besnier and Brownell 2012). Sports serves as one of the most contested and celebrated institutions in our society (Appleby and Foster 2013:1), hence, without acknowledging the place of sports, it will be impossibleRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Savage Minds By Adam Fish And Nick Seaver855 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshand, Nick Seaver is a PhD candidate in anthropology at UC Irvine. Conducting his research with developers of algorithmic music recommender systems in the US. The article I have chosen by him is: Ã¢â¬Å"Computers and Sociocultural AnthropologyÃ¢â¬ , a logical tittle for an academic, researching computational system while striving for a doctoral degree in the field. SeaverÃ¢â¬â¢s article concerns an Ã¢â¬Å"alternate universe anthropologyÃ¢â¬ where Ideas about culture anthropology have been picked up or reinvented by peopleRead MoreIntro to Sociology1167 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis a division in academic labor in social science. Our role, what we tend to, like anthropology, in history aspect. Anthropology is about the history of others. Anthropologists take long trips to different places of the world, far away from home. Spend time with exotic others. This is the history of anthropology. Anthropology is seen as colonialistic. Division of Academic Labor Anthropology: Exotic Others Psychology: Individual Consciousness Study of the individual thought Read MoreAnthropology : The First Day Of Class1507 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhat is Anthropology? When this question was asked on the first day of class. I immediately thought to myself that it was the study of nonindustrial peoples but it was much more. According to the American Anthropology Association, Anthropology is the study of humans, past and present. I realized that many social science focus on one single society such as the United States. While, anthropology offers a unique cross-cultural perspective, constantly comparing the customs of one society with those ofRead MoreCross-Disciplinary Team Research Analysis Of A Community1177 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReport New graduate programs at the Stevenson Center Collaborating with the School of Kinesiology and Recreation and the Department of Sociology and Anthropology, the Stevenson Center added two new degree programs to its Fellows programs. Applied Community and Economic Development Fellows and Peace Corps Fellows can now pursue masterÃ¢â¬â¢s degrees in anthropology or kinesiology and recreation. Strategy 2: Increase pride, engagement, and sense of community among University stakeholders. Redbird Prime RedbirdRead MoreMy First Year As A College Student1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIt is my first year as a college student. As the semester shortly comes to an abrupt halt. I can look back and realize some of the major things that have happened. I have met so many new people, created a new family, joined a sport I never thought I would play (Rugby) and found my best friend. When I was a senior in high school, I had everything planned out. From the degree to the medical school I would attend, everything. I never once thought life would be this difficult and equally pleasurableRead More Social Discrimination 1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestwo. The prep band students were not highly educated on the relationship between Puerto Rico and the United States, because Rodriguez does not need a green card to play for a United States college basketball team. Chris Chase, an editor for Yahoo Sports stated that Ã¢â¬Å"The basis for the bands racism was itself misguided. Rodriguez was born in Puerto Rico, a commonwealth of the United States. Even if he had not grown up in Miami and starred for a high school basketball team in that city, he would stillRead MoreTypes Of Materials And Archaeological Sites1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmethods and two excavation techniques. Archaeology can be defined as a subdiscipline of anthropology involving the study of the human past through its materials. To fully understand what archaeology is and what it entails, one must know a bit about anthropology. Anthropology in the most general sense is the study of our humanity. Examples include physical or biological anthropology, cultural, linguistic, and finally archaeology. Archaeologists use different types of material, artifactsRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography of Articles on the Cultural Significance of Tattooing448 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagescurious person who wishes to know why the American pop culture has gone wild about tattoos, and whom the tattooed stars in movie, sports, and music are, this is the perfect scholarly article. Kosut explains why tattooing has gone mainstream based on her six years of ethnographic research. Schildkrout, Enid (2004). Inscribing the Body. Annual Review of Anthropology, 33(1), 319-344. This article is basically a literature review from an anthropological perspective. Interesting references are
Monday, December 16, 2019
string(106) " brought home to the leadership of both countries the necessity and wisdom of maintaining good relations\." MALAYSIA-SINGAPORE RELATIONS UNDER MOHD. NAJIB TUN RAZAK 1: By Rusdi Omar Mas Juliana Mukhtaruddin Senior Lecturer, Department of International Studies, College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS), Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Sintok, Malaysia ABSTRACT Malaysia and Singapore enjoy and share a special relationship due to their geographical, historical, familial, cultural, political, economic and strategic features. Their relationship is characterized by interdependence. We will write a custom essay sample on Malaysia-Singapore Relations or any similar topic only for you Order Now The competitive world has brought about a close neighborly cooperation between the two nations to build resilience and strength. This article will examine the state of bilateral relations between these two countries under MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Prime Minister Mohd. Najib, and will analyze the future prospect of Malaysia and Singapore under his era. Under his era, Malaysia has been embarking on a series of initiatives in improving her relationship with Singapore, leaving tensions that took place during Mahathir era. Looking at the history of relations between the two countries, the role of leadership has played important role in the up and down of relationship. Under new generation of leaders in these two countries, we expect that they have new visions and put more efforts to nurture good relations. Personal contacts involving leaders and government officials of both countries still become the bases of relations between these two closed neighbors. The understanding reached by the leaders of the two countries has been and remain the fundamental to preserving long term mutual benefits. Leaders of both countries can play significant roles in overcoming conflicts and finding solutions to the problems that besieged the relations between the two countries. If both countries could maintain the momentum and capitalize the benefits of these initiatives, we foresee 1 This paper will be presenting to the 1st International Conference on International Relations and Development at Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand, 19-20 May 2011. that both countries will not enter into troubled relationships like the revious periods, but it augurs well for strengthened relationships in the future. INTRODUCTION The aim of this study is to examine the state of bilateral relations between two sovereign countries under Najib. Both countries have experienced a common colonial experience but have failed to achieve a successful unification on gaining independence. Malaysia and Singapore relations are unique and special due to factors such as geography, history, politics, ideology, economy, cul ture and ethnicity. These factors sometimes have created tensions between both countries. The uniqueness of the relationship is perhaps reflected by the various terms used to describe the state of rivalry between the two countries such as Ã¢â¬Å"Siamese twinsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"sibling rivalryÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"family quarrelÃ¢â¬ , suggesting a complex love-hate relationship that has grown out of a shared common history and cultural background, coloured by political differences and, ironically, by economic competition and interdependency. 2 Both countries have emphasized from time to time their economic interdependence and defence indivisibility. Even though they have been characterized by competition in economic and social matters, because of a very high level of economic interdependence as major trading partners, the geographical proximity of the two causeway neighbours have made their economic, security, and prosperity indivisible. 3 Since SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s independence from the Federation of Malaysia in 1965, the bilateral relationship between Singapore and Malaysia has been described as symbiotic and interdependent. However, this mutually beneficial relationship has been marred by a number of problems that threaten this cooperation. In explaining this relationship, the Rusdi Omar, et. al. (2005). Hubungan Malaysia-Singapura Era Mahathir. Sintok: Penerbit Universiti Utara Malaysia. p. 2. 3 K. S. Nathan. (2002). Malaysia-Singapore Relations: Retrospect and Prospect. Contemporary Southeast Asia. 24(2), p. 388. 2 then Singapore First Deputy Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong says: `its relationship with Malaysia was one of its most important and complex foreign relationsÃ¢â¬â¢. 4 Whereas, the former Malaysian Prime Minister, Tun Dr. Mahathir remarked that: `ItÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible to be friendly with Singapore because of the neighbouring city states unfriendliness towards Malaysia. Singapore gets into that kind of mood that they reject anything that comes from Malaysia. We try to be as friendly as possible but itÃ¢â¬â¢s impossibleÃ¢â¬â¢. 5 Despite the inherent tensions between Singapore and Malaysia, their inter-connected histories resemble the complex relationship of `inseparable twinsÃ¢â¬â¢. 6 There are various underlying reasons for this alternating relationship of cordiality and tension between both countries. It proceeds from the assumption that many factors combine to make the Malaysia-Singapore relationship a special as well as Ã¢â¬Å"a complicated and delicate oneÃ¢â¬ . The period stretching from 1997 to 2002 under Mahathir administration was by far the most stressful in the short history of relations between Singapore and Malaysia, with a number of issues reaching confrontational level and thus rendering them more difficult to resolve. The impasse came to an end when Abdullah Badawi becoming the Prime Minister of Malaysia on 30 October 2003. Since Abdullah Badawi became Prime Minister, there have been enhanced contacts and cooperation between the governments and peoples of the two countries. He is to revive and inject the G-to-G relations between both countries with a heavy dose of sensitivities and sensibilities, which, in turn, has had an immediate spill over effect in the enhancement of the P-to-P relations, which were bereft of the kind of sensitivities and sensibilities that formed the P-to-P relations during the Mahathir era. During NajibÃ¢â¬â¢s era, he does the same things like Abdullah did. He emphasize of G-to-G relations and P-to-P relations for strengthening the bilateral New Straits Times. (2003). May 5. p. 22. Asian Economic News. (2002). 14 October 14. p. 19. 6 Ghazali Shafie. 1990). Ã¢â¬Å"Singapore and Malaysia: Inseparable TwinsÃ¢â¬ , in Trends, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Straits Times, December 21. 4 5 relations between two countries. Joint venture companies also played a major role in building good relationships between Malaysia and Singapore. 7 The rapprochement between the two countries should also be viewed against the background of c hanging local and international developments. These include the rise of religious extremism, the spread of international terrorism and the threat of epidemics such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the avian influenza. These common cross-border problems brought home to the leadership of both countries the necessity and wisdom of maintaining good relations. You read "Malaysia-Singapore Relations" in category "Essay examples" The move towards greater contacts and cooperation was also dictated by globalization and the rise of China and India as well as the slowdown in the flows of foreign investment to both countries. THE ROLE OF THE LEADERS Leaders as social actors play an important part in determining the direction of conflict. They must play an effective role in overcoming conflict and finding solutions to the problems. If they know their function, they can play their role correctly and contribute to the preservation and stability of peace. 8 The role of the leaders of Malaysia and Singapore are crucial in determining the future relations between the two countries. The failure of diplomacy suggests the failure of the instruments of foreign policy. Patterns, channel and devices of communication must be made readily available to encourage close rapport between leaders of the two countries. The traditional wisdom occurred when once leadership change. It can augur general changes will happen, either for the better or for worse. Although the foreign policy does not change in total, but some how rather there is little substantive change. It could be seen when the transition of leaders taken place in both countries. 7 8 New Straits Times. (2010). May 25. Chandran Jeshurun, et. al. , Op. cit. , p. 11. Singaporean leaders like Mr. Goh Chok Tong and Mr. Lee Hsien Loong are widely perceived as merely continuing Mr. Lee Kuan YewÃ¢â¬â¢s policy and as such there will not be major changes in the direction of SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy towards Malaysia. Meanwhile MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s foreign policy has been redirected to suit the priorities of the current leaders. Tunku Abdul Rahman was understanding and sympathetic towards Singapore. Tun Abdul Razak was more aggressive with Singapore, while, Tun Hussein Onn was just continuing the prevailing policies at the time. The biggest paradigm shift in Malaysia-Singapore relations could be seen during the tenure of Dr. Mahathir. His vision 2020 policy was more challenging to Singapore than other neighbouring countries. The leadership styles of Mahathir and Lee Kuan Yew have been a strong influence in the manner bilateral issues between the two countries. Both leaders were aggressive in dealing with the issues. Both were also influenced by their past experience and the pre and post separation political baggage. MahathirÃ¢â¬â¢s view towards Singapore may have been coloured by his experience as a medical student in Singapore whilst Lee Kuan YewÃ¢â¬â¢s views towards Malaysia were mainly coloured by his involvement in Malaysian politics during the short period Singapore was in the Malaysian Federation and relations with Malaysia during the period immediately after the separation. Nevertheless, after the retirement of Dr. Mahathir in 2003 and under Abdullah Badawi and Najib as MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Prime Ministers, it may show a better result of the bilateral relations in future. Malaysia, with Abdullah at the helm, has set a very different tone at the personal level, which carry over into institutional level. In January 2004, during his first visit to Singapore as Prime Minister of Malaysia, Abdullah spoke of working through all of the outstanding bilateral problems. Under his era, he tries to move forward to improve the relations with Singapore, and then Malaysia has been embarking on a series of initiatives to improve her relationship with Singapore. Similar with NajibÃ¢â¬â¢s era, he has been working with his counterpart of Singapore in resolving all the outstanding issues with a win-win situation approach. There were several visits and meetings have been done by both leaders in tackling these issue. As a result, they have finally agreed to settle the KTM land issue in Singapore during their recently meeting in Singapore. 9 So under his leadership, he tries to move forward in improving her relations with Singapore and then Malaysia has made several efforts to improve her relationship with Singapore in future. Despite the outstanding issues, the tone of relations has changed for the better in recent time with the rise of new leaders on both sides- Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak in Malaysia and Lee Hsien Loong in Singapore. There is strong political will to improve bilateral relations, especially in bilateral economic relations. INITIATIVES/EFFORTS IN IMPROVING THE BILATERAL RELATIONSHIP Singapore-Malaysia relations are marked by close inter-dependence. Singapore and Malaysia have always shared strong economic and people-to-people linkages. From SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s standpoint, the relationship should be based on mutual respect, mutual benefit, and adherence to international law and agreements. Singapore will continue to seek new areas of cooperation to strengthen bilateral relations with Malaysia even further. From MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s side, the relationship must be on Ã¢â¬Å"win-winÃ¢â¬ situation approach, which means both countries will get benefit from that relationship. From my point of view, both Malaysia and Singapore know the importance of their relationship towards the development of their respective countries. We can not deny that we are interdependent in terms of economic, security and social aspects. For example, in term of economic aspect, most Malaysians know Singapore is one of the biggest investors in Malaysia and vice versa. There are several initiatives/efforts that will improve the relationship between both countries, such as intensifying official visits (government-to-government relations); developing people-to-people (P-P) contacts; deepening public sector economic links; expanding private sector economic links ; and renewing educational and sporting events. 0 If both countries could maintain the momentum and capitalize the benefits of 9 10 The Malaysian Insider. (2010). September 20. Saw Swee-Hock K. Kesavapany. Op. cit. 2006. these initiatives, I see that both countries will not enter into troubled relationships like the previous periods, but it augurs well for strengthened relationships in the future. The first initiative that will improve the relationship between two countr ies is to intensify official visits of both countries. Official visits by heads of government, ministers, senior officials and etcetera must be intensified from time to time. Under the current leadership of both countries, many efforts have been taken to overcome these problems, for example, regular meetings that incorporate informal social activities such as annual golf and sports meetings between cabinet members of both countries, and the holding of joint cultural and religious festivals that involve the leaders from both sides of the causeway (e. g. Hari Raya and Chinese New Year celebrations held in Johor). Also, the number increase of visits between two countries at ministerial, senior officials and technical levels. All these efforts are designed to enhance peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ relationships so they can withstand the possible turbulence created by political and other friction that might surface from time to time. Thus, it creates the necessary goodwill and positive atmosphere conducive to resolving issues and problems. The visit of Singaporean political leaders to Malaysia to meet their counterparts of Malaysia is a right time and very important event for both countries. May be from this visit, both countries can achieve some approaches in handling and resolving the unsettled issues, although I know it is impossible to settle all their problems which have long roots in history. The current infomal meetings and talks of the leadership of both countries for example is one approach for both countries to design a pathway to resume talks on bilateral issues. Although, I am sceptical that the recent informal meetings would achieve some tangible solutions on outstanding bilateral issues between the two neighbours, the existing meetings show us that both countries are now more open towards each other. Both leaders currently express their desire to improve bilateral relations of both countries and seem to have adopted a positive attitude towards each other. If both countries practice the principles of Ã¢â¬Å"win-winÃ¢â¬ situation, both will achieve outcomes which are mutually beneficial, whether politically, in security matters or in the economic sphere, we think both sides can resolve the outstanding bilateral issues in future. Secondly, both countries must develop people-to people contacts. We should encourage more visits, more tourist arrival from Singapore and Malaysia and vice versa and also explore ways to develop these contacts. Thereby, they will create the necessary goodwill and tolerance among their peoples. In promoting greater P-P contacts, both countries introduced the student exchange programs and the joint overseas youth exchange program and etcetera. These programs were for important for the new generations to know each others and they help to enhance understanding among the younger generation in the two countries. Mass media is an important instrument to flow information to the peoples. Mass media from both countries must be professional in flowing information about their people life and no to be emotional in flowing information of their sensitive issues. The information will help people on both sides to keep up with developments in the two countries and foster better understanding and bilateral ties. Thirdly, both countries must expand the public sector economic links. The current leadership in both countries made it a point to send the right signals to the business communities in sector both the private sector and the public sector with governmentlinked companies. Encouraged by the new political and business atmosphere, both of government and private sector have moved quickly in areas such strategic investments, corporate purchases and joint business ventures. From 2004, there was a surge in investment activities led by government-linked companies of both countries. The emergence of Temasek Holdings, the embodiment of Singapore Inc. , as a strategic stakeholder in MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest listed company could mark a watershed in often-strained relations between the neighbours. It acquired 5 percent of Telekom Malaysia for RM2. billion, its first major direct investment in Malaysia. 11 This was followed by other government-link companies such as GIC Real Estate Pte Ltd bought 100 percent stake in Johore Bahru City Square Mall, it made investments in Sunway Pyramid Mall, Sunway City Berhad, Menara Standard Chartered, RB Land Sdn Bhd and bought 5 percent stake in Gamuda Bhd and MalaysiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Shell Refining Co. Mapletree Capital Management, 1 1 Ã¢â¬Å"AMMB in Talks to Buy Out of Fraser SecuritiesÃ¢â¬ , New Straits Times. (2005). February 2. Aranda Investments and Keppel Energy companies invested in Malaysia. One of the more significant investment flows from Malaysia was the purchase of a stake in SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s Mobile One Ltd in August 2005 by Sun Share Investments Ltd, a joint venture between Khazanah Nasional and Telekom Malaysia. Fourthly, both countries must develop the private sector economic links. The private sector from both countries took advantage made investments in both sides under the current leadership. A lot of Malaysian private companies invest in Singapore and vice versa, such as Sime Darby, MISC, Berjaya Group, CIMB, AMMB Holdings, OSK Holdings, MCL Land, Parkway, United Oversea Land and etcetera. The close ties between the private sectors of both countries are important in globalizing world. The companies from both countries could collaborate and cooperate to tap opportunities arising from deeper economic integration. The leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s positive stance towards better economic cooperation between the two countries was another reflection of the improving relations between the two neighbours since Abdullah Badawi and Najib took over the leadership of Malaysia government. Fifthly, both countries must take initiative in renewing educational and sporting events. First initiative was undertaken by the University of Malaya (UM) and the National University of Singapore (NUS) in introducing the exchange program of students and staffs between them. These joint programs will create a healthy environment in forging close ties among students and staffs of both countries. We must create linking among industry sectors and the institutions such as a unique cooperation between the NUS and KUB Malaysia Berhad. The establishment of joint programs for student exchange program for secondary school of both countries and etcetera. Yet, the traditional sporting activities between officials of the two countries, such as golf, football, tennis, badminton and etcetera need to continue. Under current leadership, the sport activities have play pivotal role inculcate the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill. These series of sport activities will renew friendly and build a good relationship among the peoples of both countries. The intensity of cooperations in various areas has been made possible by the warming of the relationship between the two countries in recent years. Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia (Malaysian Head of State) during the officials visit to Singapore in 23 January 2006 has said that; Ã¢â¬Å" No doubt, the positive political environment, growing trade figures and investment flows, increasing exchange of visits and strengtherning cooperation in various areas, augur well for the future outlook in our bilateral relationsÃ¢â¬ . 12 PROSPECT OF MALAYSIA AND SINGAPORE UNDER NAJIB Currently, it appears that both leaders in Malaysia and Singapore have shown some lights of cooperation and mutual understanding between them in accordance to the principle of prosper thy neighbour or to prosper its neighbours through economic aspects in order to realization their potential. Although having the outstanding issues, both countries will be able to remain friendly and cordial. According to Democratic Peace Theory, this states that democratic countries do not go to war with other democratic countries. According to this theory, democratic countries would refrain from using force against each other, because they are accountable to their citizens. In the context of Malaysia-Singapore relations, both countries do not go to war because they are democratic countries and prefers to resolve the outstanding issues either through diplomacy talks or the third parties involvement. In case of bilateral relations between Malaysia and Singapore, although these two states do not implement complete aspects of liberal democracy such as full freedom of speech and freedom to form organizations, they also do not use military force to settle their problems. They use dialogs and other peaceful measures to negotiate their bilateral 12 Ibid. , p. 20. issues. Therefore, despite the many bilateral issues that have surfaced in the course of Malaysia and Singapore relations, armed conflict is very unlikely to be a possibility, and certainly not when both countries are practising democratic forms of governance. Given this situation, we need to search for additional factors to explain the no war situation between Malaysia and Singapore. As in many newly independent countries, the role of leadership is one factor that can bring a country to be a war-prone or peace-prone state. The new regimes of leadership will play important roles in fostering the relationship of both countries in relation to democratic peacekeeping. If Malaysia and Singapore did become engaged in a full scale war, we would have to discount the popular argument that democracies are not likely to go into war against each other, given the fact that both Malaysia and Singapore are governed on democratic principles. It may be argued that the apparent flaws in their brands of democratic system of government would be given as the reasons. However, both governments are led by rational and pragmatic leaders who understand the extent of the negative consequences of war to both countries, and therefore this worst-case situation is not possible. In connection with improving Malaysia-Singapore relationship, economic interdependence is very significant for both countries in terms of their development process. With the importance of Singapore as a centre of commerce for most of Southeast Asia region, and in particular Malaysia, has much to gain in terms of trade and commerce. Similarly, Singapore, because of its own lack economic resources, will look towards Malaysia for its economic needs, such as investment in Malaysia, water and labour supplies etcetera. Such economic interdependence has long been recognized as important by both states as being important, and is arguably a reason that trade and investment between them remained substantial for several decades. The volume of bilateral trade between them has increased remarkably over the years. As it stands today, Singapore and Malaysia have somewhat established themselves as largest trading partners in ASEAN. In future, we foresee that bilateral relations between two sovereign countries will augur well and confident it will be built a better future for the two neighbours in resolving other issues for the sake of their people based on the above-mentioned facts. CONCLUSION The intensity of cooperation in various areas has been made possible by the warming of the relationship between the two countries in recent year. There is some concern about the enormous scope and advantage of working together for mutual benefits even as they compete where they must and collaborate where they can. Nevertheless, as with any two neighbours, the prospect of downturns in bilateral relations, arising often unforeseen circumstances, cannot and should not precluded. It is in the interest of both nations and their peoples to guard against such downturns by careful management of the relationship, and this has certainly been made easier by the goodwill and cooperative spirit engendered under Najib. In fact, one of NajibÃ¢â¬â¢s achievements in the area of international relations is the much-improved bilateral ties between the two close neighbours. In conclusion, Malaysia and Singapore enjoy and share a special relationship, due to their historical and cultural linkages, and their geographical proximity. The current challenging world has brought about a close neighbourly co-operation between the two nations to build resilience and strength. Both Malaysia and Singapore, are acutely aware of the mutual importance of each other, and continually look for ways and means to improve relations between the two countries. It should however be implemented based on the principles that would lead to a Ã¢â¬Å"win-winÃ¢â¬ situation, and adhering to the rules of International Law. SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s well being is important to Malaysia as Singapore is one of its largest trading partners. The establishment of good relations with Singapore is therefore economically vital to Malaysia. The win-win situation can only be achieved if both parties are willing to accept the fact that the key to solving the outstanding bilteral issues is their willingness to compromise. Malaysia would argue that this is something that has been commonly practiced by Malaysia and therefore an act that is not difficult to get into. Singapore on the other hand is beginning to realize its economic and social vulnerability. It is aware of the importance of regional goodwill and cooperation in combatting issues such as the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the avian influenza, terrorism and religious extremism issues etcetera. The realisation by both nations that compromise is the key to better relations could eventually lead to its adoption and therefore better relations. Despite the differences in the approaches taken by both countries in resolving their bilateral issues, it is obvious that Malaysia and Singapore are mutually dependant on each other. Looking at the history of relations between the two countries, the role of leadership has played important role in the up and down of relationship. Under new generation of leaders in these two countries, we expect that they have new visions and put more efforts to nurture good relations. Personal contacts involving leaders and government officials of both countries still become the bases of relations between these two closed neighbours. The understanding reached by the leaders of the two countries has been and remain the fundamental to preserving long term mutual benefits. Leaders of both countries can play significant roles in overcoming conflicts and finding solutions to the problems that besieged the relations between the two countries. Future direction in the relations should be focused on developing more cordial and tactful relations. Instead of competing, there is always the possibility of entering a smart partnership venture in a fast developing regional economy. This would definitely create a win-win situation for both countries instead of perpetual conflict. Under Najib Tun Razak the current Malaysian Prime Minister, there are signs of better bilateral relation in the future. With several good initiatives has been done by both countries leaders in resolving some legacy issues between them, such as Malaysia-Singapore Points of Agreement of 1990 (POA), over the issue of the future of railway land owned by the Malaysian government through Malayan Railways (Keretapi Tanah Melayu or KTM) in Singapore. I foresee that bilateral relations between two sovereign countries will augur well in the future and confident it will be built a better future for the two neighbours in resolving other issues for the sake of their people. REFERENCES Chandran Jeshurun, et. l. (January-March 2003). Malaysia-Singapore Relations: A Case Study of Conflict-prone Bilateral Ties. The Southeast Asia Conflict Studies Network Bulletin. p. 8. Chang Li Lin. (2003). SingaporeÃ¢â¬â¢s Troubled Relations with Malaysia: A Singapore Perspective. Southeast Asian Affairs. p. 259-274. Ganesan, N. (1999). Bilateral Tension in Post-Cold War ASEAN. Pacific Strategic Papers. Singapore: Institute of Sou theast Asian Studies (ISEAS). Lee Poh Onn. (2003). The Water Issue Between Singapore and Malaysia: No Solution in Sight. ISEAS Working Papers on Economics and Finance No. . Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Kyodo News. 2005. Singapore and Malaysia resolve land reclamation dispute. April 26. http://www. channelnewsasia. com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/144527/1/. htm l Nathan, K. S. (August 2002). Malaysia-Singapore Relations: Retrospect and Prospect. Contemporary Southeast Asia. 24(2), p. 401. New Straits Times. (2010). May 25. Rusdi Omar, et. al. (2005). Hubungan Malaysia-Singapura Era Mahathir. Sintok: Penerbit Universiti Utara Malaysia. Saw Swee-Hock K. Kesavapany. 2006. Singapore-Malaysia Relations. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS). Smith, A. L. (2004). Malaysia-Singapore Relations: Never Mind the rhetoric. APCSS, Hawaii. p. 143 -144. Star. (1999). June 5. Sun. (2000). January 22. Sunday Star. (1994). October 23 Trost, H. R. (1993). Historical Legal Claims: A Study of Disputed Sovereignty Over Pulau Batu Putih (Pedra Branca). Maritime Briefing. Vol. 1, No. 1. p. 28. _________. (2003). Water: The Singapore-Malaysia Dispute and the Facts. Kuala Lumpur: National Economic Action Council. The Malaysian Insider. (2010). September 20. How to cite Malaysia-Singapore Relations, Essay examples
Sunday, December 8, 2019
20Th Century Music Essay By the turn of the century and for the next few decades, artists of all nationalities were searching for exciting and different modes of expression. Composers such as Arnold Schoenberg explored unusual and unorthodox harmonies and tonal schemes. French composer Claude Debussy was fascinated by Eastern music and the whole-tone scale, and created a style of music named after the movement in French painting called Impressionism. Hungarian composer Bela Bartok continued in the traditions of the still strong Nationalist movement and fused the music of Hungarian peasants with twentieth century forms. Avant-garde composers such as Edgard Varese explored the manipulation of rhythms rather than the usual melodic/harmonic schemes. The tried and true genre of the symphony, albeit somewhat modified by this time, attracted such masters as Gustav Mahler and Dmitri Shostakovich, while Igor Stravinsky gave full rein to his manipulation of kaleidoscopic rhythms and instrumental colors throughout his extremely long and varied career. While many composers throughout the twentieth-century experimented in new ways With traditional instruments such as the prepared piano used by American composer John Cage, many of the twentieth-centurys greatest composers, such as Italian opera composer Giacomo Puccini and the Russian pianist/composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, remained true to the traditional forms of music history. In addition to new and eclectic styles of musical trends, the twentieth century boasts numerous composers whose harmonic and melodic styles an average listener can still easily appreciate and enjoy. The advance of technology has also had an enormous impact on the evolution of music in this century, with some composers using, for instance, the cassette player as a compositional tool or electronically generated sounds alongside classical instruments, the use of computers to compose music, and so on. Some important composers of the 20th century were Leos Janacek 1854-1928, Claude Debussy 1862-1918, Richard Strauss 1864-1949, Carl August Nielsen 1865-1931, Arnold Schonberg 1874-1951, Ralph Vaughan Williams 1872-1958, Maurice Ravel 1875-1937, Bela Bartok 1881-1945, Igor Stravinsky 1882-1971, Anton von Webern 1883-1945, Alban Berg 1885-1935, Sergei Prokofiev 1891-1953, Paul Hindemith 1895-1963, George Gershwin 1898-1937, Kurt Weill 1900-1950, Aaron Copland 1900-1990, Olivier Messiaen 1908-1992, and John Cage 1912-1992.
Sunday, December 1, 2019
Belarus, Ukraine or Russia, where this problem is common too. There are limits to the freedom of speech, freedom of the press or freedom of conscience. Sometimes people are not allowed to choose religion or their own believes, and if they do choose, then they have to die for their choices. Political liberty is abridged or doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist. People are killed, go to prisons, their property is seized- all of that in the majesty of law. On the other hand thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a lot of organizations and other centers which are trying to deal with this problem. All of us have heard about Amnesty International or Human Rights Watch. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be interested in this issue to have knowledge. Media gives us a lot of new facts every single day. One of them inspirited me to this presentation. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s leave general thoughts and focus on subject which I found worth talking over. We will write a custom essay sample on Womens Rights in Saudi Arabia Presentation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In my opinion one of the most interesting and probably difficult aspects of this problem is question about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in countries, where culture is determined by religion. This problem especially relates to Middle East, African and Asian countries, such as Kurdistan, Jordan, Afghanistan and so on. Saudi Arabia is one of them too. In this matter, connection with Islam is inappreciable. According to the Guardian, the Saudi Arabia government is about to enforce changes in law, which allow only women work in stores with underwear, female apparel, cosmetics. This law was enacted in 2006 but till today has never been enforced. And even today itÃ¢â¬â¢s not certain it will be. Despite the fact Saudi women are complying about men serving in such shops. Buying underwear with strange men company can be embarrassing or inconvenient, but women in Saudi Arabia have no choice. This fact is caused by Saudi Arabia culture, which is determined by religion. Precisely speaking, by Islam. The radical interpretation of Koran, put Saudi women in untenable situation- in the name of strict segregation, clerics and mutawa prefer women to be served by men, than woman standing face to face with a man selling to him without modesty or shame. It can seem to be trivial, irrelevant problem. Especially in western culture, which is mostly laic. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. Saudi Arabia is known for its strict moral principles, which keeps women and men strictly segregated. Women have to wear abaya, which is full-length, black cloak covering the entire body. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s more every adult woman has to have a close male relative as her guardian. They need his approval for every life decision they made. These are only examples of maltreatment women in this country. In this background, is the problem with men staff in female shops still so silly? That brings me to the end of my presentation. Let me leave you with that question . Thank you for your listening.