Saturday, November 5, 2016

Eyewitness Memory to Recall a Crime is infallible essay

Essay Topic:\n\nThe worry of considering date entrepot to be a rock-steady read for the Court.\n\nEssay Questions:\n\nWhy has tonus store unceasingly been a way out of constant arguments?\n\nHow does woeful whole ifice treat witness retentivity?\n\nW palpebra atomic number 18 the curiousity and the weaknesses of witness deposition?\n\n thesis Statement:\n\nThe witness reposition digest be of ein truth value nonwithstanding in case of its correspondence to the major(ip)(ip) coquette demands and its 100% objectiveness which is especi each(prenominal)y unstated c tot whollyyable to the theatreivity of the mankind intelligence.\n\n \n witness Memory to Recall a Crime is Infallible test\n\n \n\nTable of contents:\n\n1. existence\n\n2. witness recommendation and its weaknesses\n\n3. The verity of witness recollection\n\n4. Children as witnesses\n\n5. Ways of facilitating witness proof\n\n6. Eyewitness stereotype\n\n7. windup\n\nThe case in whi ch you real drive to worry almost eyewitnesses\n\nmemory is the case in which its the whole show up youve got,\n\nSt until now M. Smith\n\nIntroduction. Eyewitness memory has ceaselessly been a subject of constant arguments throughout the totally history of its existence. Peoples words surrender always been valued and having a witness of a crime was he worst intimacy hat could happen to the criminal. The phrase Eyewitnesses do non live unyielding so comm unaccompanied short-circuit among deal, reveals the importance of the fact of eye-witnessing for the bulk of hoi polloi in global and oddly for the jury. The eyewitness memory as each separate source of tell has to be c be fully checked and evaluated. And what is steady more primal the objectiveness of the recollections get hold of to be truly at a very gamy school rate. Criminal legal expert bespeaks special attention to the phenomenon of the eyewitness memory as it is sleep with that close to eons memory plays tricks on its carriers. This is primarily referable to the peculiarities of the wisdom of human mind and the disposition of the reproductive memory of the data. It is common friendship that memory is a offshoot of recognition, transshipment center and reproduction of all reading. So it is very consequential to be sure that all of these touch ones be undamaged. This emphasises the importance of the companionship round the eyewitness health and mental abilities. The eyewitness memory can be of whatsoever value only in case of its correspondence to the major court demands and its 100% objectivity which is specially hard callable to the subjectivity of the human comprehension.\n\n2. Eyewitness evidence and its weaknesses\n\nEyewitness proof is an oral informing just about the circumstances that be authorized to the criminal case. During the process of checking and rating of the eyewitness affirmation the principal(prenominal)(prenominal) di fficulty is to determine if the eyewitness has certain springs for concealing entropy or giving simulated witness. The main weakness of the eyewitness witness is the analysis of the process of its formation, taking into circular all the subjective and objective factors, which could have influenced the truth, veracity and objective reli capability. in that respect ar quartet factors that unbelief the trustworthiness of the eyewitness evidence. They argon: the feature films of human perception, the conditions downstairs which the perception takes send out, the specific character of the memorisation and the memory peculiarities, and the character and he conditions chthonic which the reproduction of the sensed tuition takes designate. All these four conditions can without both incertitude be called the weaknesses of the process of the eyewitness witness.\n\nThe characteristics of human perception implies the physiological limitations of he someones, whatsoever defects of the perception organs and the orientation of the perception, faculty to different irritants, the psychological scene on perception of the soulfulness and he belowstanding of his ordinate birth attitude towards the sensed facts. The conditions under which the perception takes place underline the importance of the psychological secern of a person at the moment of perception, the duration and the melody of the process of perception, the operation factors of the perceived object, somatogenetic conditions of the perception much(prenominal)(prenominal) as the specificity of illumination, distance, audibility and any other(a)s. The specific character of the committal to memory and the peculiarities of memory of the eyewitness bring about a separate grouping which is vital in the paygrade of the reliableness of the eyewitness testimony. This is especially actual in name of the novelty of the fifty-fiftyts for the eyewitness, their recurrence, the continuance of the storage of information, the particular qualities of the witnesss memory and its defects and a farthest the possibilities of distortion or surrogate of the information. The character and the conditions under which the reproduction of the perceived information takes place in persists to reveal the value of the adaptation of the setting, un giveingness to give time-tested testimony according to individual(prenominal) motives or be take a crap of the dread of retaliation from the side of defendant and the amity of the minded(p) testimony and its record.All these conditions under which the eyewitness testimony is bankrupt make it very hard to trust the eyewitness testimony or rely only on it during the case investigation. For that reason no eyewitness testimony should be taken in into consideration if the witness depositions vary other irrefutable evidence. some other questionable spotlight is the contradiction of the testimonies of two eyewitnesses which rather oft h appens in court. Basically grammatical construction eyewitness testimony clay withal objective for the court and for that reason it can non be a subject of complete confidence until it is non supported by any objective details. The major chore is the contradiction and sometimes the contrast of the subjective and objective evidence. This rolls the prerequisite of eyewitness testimony under a big question!\n\n3. The accuracy of eyewitness memory\n\nThe biggest task of the evaluation of the eyewitness testimony is the selection of the ameliorate information and the release from all the subjective blast. agree to Marc unfledged:Memory can tilt the shape of a room. It can change the colour of a car. And memories can be twisted. They are just an meter reading. They are non a record [1]. This is what makes the eyewitness memory primarily treacherous for the court. It goes without apothegm that there are both correct and imprecise eyewitnesses. Nevertheless, the probabilit y of getting in cover eyewitness testimony whitethorn is still rather high and this is extremely dangerous due to the fact that the wrong person can be present in jail only because someone gave inaccurate information concerning the case. The jurisdiction system is non the place for might guesses and human beings can very rarely be objective towards what they have observed in the past. Individuals fly the coop to add and to modify what they aphorism and they do it unconsciously. It happens due to the peculiar probabilities of the memory. The brain subconsciously fills in the gaps of memory and through this creates tonic case-details. These details ordinarily are non correct at all.Actual perception and memory do non have some(prenominal) in common, as some(prenominal) facts a blurred, forgotten or replaced by other facts. any(prenominal) reconstruction of a given even is often accompany by slight changes in the testimony which can fashion indicators of the unreliabil ity of the eyewitnesss grammatical case and fact memory. The accuracy of the eyewitnesss statements is not stable and subjectivism reduces the precision of the facts to zero. The brightest practicable example is any tiddlerishness event that people ordinarily like to reproduce. It is common knowledge that all of them are distorted sometimes completely. But what happens to the perception when a person finds himself in a situation of high punctuate when for instance becomes an eyewitness of a murder?\n\nAccording to the studies of the Yale University:the ability to recognize persons encountered during extremely threatening and a disagreeable event is poor in the absolute majority of individuals [2]. So the only situation when the eyewitness testimony should be considered is when that even took place in a very familiar environment for he individual and did not cause any extreme stress condition.The problem of accuracy of the eyewitness testimony is closely connect to the ina bility to provide correct peripheral details and the magnetic inclination to provide changed details of the event. The majority of people have separate look ating when certain events are connected to certain objects and other events. For instance, a person that has a settled opinion that all robbers have knives will select that he saw a knife in the hold or in the easy lay of the robber. Individuals confuse memory information sources and sometimes excessively immingle two different events. Or they might have hear a story related to o their case and levy this borrowed memories over the actual situation. So the accuracy is no any recollects a characteristic of the eyewitness testimony.\n\n4. Children as eyewitnesses\n\n on that point have been certain enquiry made in scathe of identifying the accuracy of tikes eyewitness testimony. According to the ecumenic experience in child testimony, it is much less accurate then the adult testimony. The main reason for this is that children are uneffective to give concrete dissolves to the questions that require detailed outcomes [11]. The research conducted by Amina Memon and Rita Vartoukian, psychologists from University of Southampton, analysed the childs ability to answer perennial questions during the testimony. Children tip to think that they may give a correct or incorrect answer on a testimony, that is the reason repeated questions confuse them and make them think that their original story was not true. So repeated testing does not bring its radiation pattern benefits when it goes about child eye-witnessing. Therefore, the frontly information provided by a child is the best. The younger the child is, the less accurate testimony can be made. Children tend to give incorrect answers due to their liability to social convention. They always need to be socially approved. The best solution in such a situation is to make sure that during the audience they know that they may answer a question with I do not know or even tattle them that some questions may be tricky and the most historic part is telling that even if they are asked to repeat an answer it does not necessarily mean that they gave the wrong answer [13]. query states: children can be reliable witnesses as long as adults use careful inquiring.\n\n5. Ways of facilitating eyewitness testimony\n\nVery often some questions or situations the witnesses find themselves in can confuse them. This especially concerns the situation when eyewitnesses make fabricated identifications.The good example of nonsensical identification was provided by the University of nor-east which studied the photo-memory of the eye-witnesses. Students observed how criminals(actors) affiliated some(prenominal) crimes in movement of them and a hour subsequent they were provided with shots with the people who were criminals and not. In a week a line-up was organise and the eyewitnesses were asked to point out the criminals. Surprisingly, the p eople who were chosen did neither insert in the crimes nor appear in the shots. 20% of those who did not participate, except whose pictures were given to the eye-witnesses a week before were falsely identified, too [14].The suspect line-up is always a problem for an eyewitness, due to the mentioned higher up peculiarities of the memory. For this reason certain elaborations should be made. It is vital to mention that the wrongdoer may not even be present at the line up. The decisions of the eyewitness need to be not taken in a rush, just after a stabilize observation. It is a much break option to make several line-ups. All the questions addressing the eyewitness are supposed to be outdoors and conscious and not by any means perplexing. By this acting the level of question will be reduced. some other good technique is the custom of the statements made by the witness himself earlier in the conversations. The eyewitness needs to tint comfortable. Ordinarily, the majority of eyewitnesses feel excessive responsibility, which causes them to feel anxiety. This should be reduced by the manner of talking to them, which is not to be hostile except friendly and supportive. Sometimes the rule of free recall should be used in parliamentary law to make the eyewitness feel free of any pressure. attach the testimony will garter the interviewer to hedge the eyewitness from excess sufferings connected with the situation of repetition unpleasant memories.\n\nIt is very important not to impose any words, expressions or opinions to the eyewitness. The task of the interviewer is just to fix the information obtained from right on stated questions.\n\n6.Eyewitness stereotype\n\nIt is not unusual when eyewitness testimony contradicts the real forensic evidence of the case. This contradiction creates a expert problem for the jury. Juries are people and are also subjective, and it is intelligible that their person-to-person.The research in the sphere of influence o f eyewitness memory is of a great significance to the jurisdiction system. And that is very important not to underestimate the meaning of the temperament, physical properties and other moments when analyzing the eyewitness testimony.Psychological questions concerning the eyewitness testimonies were the main priority of a French scientist Laplas. Laplas analyzes the probability of the eyewitness statements along with the probability of he outcome of court verdict. He constructed a appoint of elements that may imply that the testimony complies with the reality. This list consists of the next elements:\n\n The probability of the event that the eyewitness is telling about.\n\n The likeliness of the next four hypotheses in terms of the eyewitnesss statements.\n\no The eyewitness is not mistaken and is not lying.\n\no The eyewitness is lying, but not mistaken.\n\no The eyewitness is not mistaken, but is lying.\n\no The eyewitness is both lying and mistaken.\n\nIn this hypotheses mistake n means that the eyewitness is confusing facts that of the tell apartd event. Laplas suddenly understood the difficulty of evaluation of the veracity or inconstancy of the eyewitness testimonies through this rule because of the large amount of circumstances, go with the facts that the eyewitness makes statements about. He considered his attainableness to be just a probability and not a certainty. That is the reason he also considered that the court does the same thing it purses on the probability and not reliability. Nevertheless Laplass contrivance is very interesting as a scientific strain to evaluate the reliability of the eyewitness testimonies.\n\nConclusion. Human memory there fore is something very personal and comparative. It cannot be a base for any important decisions such as the court verdicts. The eyewitness puts all his believes, settings and attitudes to the testimony he makes.It is vital to keep in mind that memory changes with time and every subsequent co mmence to retell what has happened will be jus another subjective interpretation of the event. Eyewitnesses can support or refute universal facts about the case, but the details and their testimony should never be put above the actual evidence presented to the court. The only exception are the cases when eyewitness testimony is the only available evidence, but these cases should by analyzed on a very specific model, as they do not accede with what people call justice. If to act like this it is possible to accuse any unacquainted(p) person and put him tush the bars. How just is this? Should eyewitness testimony be taken into account at all? It goes without saying that the information got from the witnesses can be important, but only general information in the first place and its verity will be considered rather intercourse in the second.The following words by Norretranders and Sydenham perfectly describe the whole situation well-nigh the eyewitness memory reliability:We do not jibe what we sense. We see what we think we sense. Our thought is presented with an interpretation, not the raw data. big after presentation, an unconscious information processing has discarded information, so that we see a simulation, a hypothesis, an interpretation; and we are not free to choose[7].\n\n If you postulate to get a full essay, order it on our website:

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